East Africa

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The Bantu Migrations and East African Trading Cities:

The Bantu Migrations and East African Trading Cities African Civilizations and the Spread of Islam

Developments in Central Africa : Bantu Migrations in 1000 BCE – 1000 CE:

Developments in Central Africa : Bantu Migrations in 1000 BCE – 1000 CE The Bantu migration was one of the largest migrations in human history Series of migrations of the Bantu people from the Niger River area into central and south Africa Began in 1500 BCE and lasted until 500 CE Why did they migrate ? Drought and famine, population increase, need to find fertile land, tribal conflicts, and disease. 2

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3 Positive results of the Bantu Migrations Introduction of iron working throughout South and East Africa New crops introduced (bananas and yams) Centralized system of government was introduced to replace stateless societies Diffused agricultural technologies (they now had enough food to eat and store for the future). Spread Bantu language Click on this map and use the site to draw the migrations into your map

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4 The Swahili language and culture developed as a result of the Bantu Migrations The name Swahili is derived from the Arabic word Sawahil , meaning "coastal dwellers". They speak Swahili, a Bantu language. Swahili = Bantu + Arabic

Swahili Coast of East Africa:

Swahili Coast of East Africa Migrations promoted the populating of south and east Africa Trading ports developed along the east coast by 1200 Most merchants converted to Islam because they wanted to trade with Islamic merchants Swahili civilization was made up of the trading city-states stretching along the East African coast Kilwa , Mogadishu, Mombasa: largest city-state and trading centers along the east coast Each city-state was politically independent with its own king Sharp class distinctions in each city-state: big gap between the wealthy merchant class and the commoners 5

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6 Ibn Battuta an Islamic scholar, judge and writer who visited the entire Muslim world described the West African trading cities as Muslim cities. Swahili Coast of East Africa The Sultan of Kilwa was called 'the generous' "on account of the multitude of his gifts and acts of generosity. He is a man of great humility; he sits with poor brethren, eats with them, and greatly respects men of religion and noble descent." [Gibb, vol. II] Map of the travels of Ibn Battuta through the “Abode of Islam”

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Ruins of the Great Mosque at Kilwa 7 Ibn Battuta probably prayed in the Great Mosque of Kilwa which is now in ruins.

East African Indian Ocean Trade:

East African Indian Ocean Trade Unlike the Silk Roads, transportation costs much less Ships could carry much more at one time than camels Sea Roads carried more bulk and staple goods (not just luxury items like the Silk Roads) Exported raw materials (furs, ivory, gold, salt, timber) in return for Indian, Islamic and Chinese luxuries Monsoons ( alternating wind currents) impacted trade patterns Summer: blow NE from SW Winter: blow SW from NE Trade occurred between individual merchant towns, not just major empires 8

Central African Cultures:

Central African Cultures Central African cultures often, developed free of Islamic contact They were herders, farmers; skilled in ironworking States formed, replace small kinship groups developed into huge communities Great Zimbabwe Prosperous trading complex Great amounts of gold surrounded it Dominated gold sources and traded with coastal trading city-states 18,000 inhabitants at its height Grain silos and 30 ft walls 9

Nubia and Ethiopia: Christianity in Africa:

Nubia and Ethiopia: Christianity in Africa Christian states were present in North Africa, Egypt, and Ethiopia before the arrival of Islam due to Roman influences. Nubia and Axum remained Christian and were cut off from trade with the Muslim merchants. 10 Christian Rock Church in Ethiopia

Global Connections:

Global Connections The spread of Islam brought large areas of Africa into the global community through increasing contact from 700-1500 CE. Specifically, West African Gold/Salt Kingdoms and city- states in East Africa Islam impacted the regions through political, economic, and cultural developments. By 1700 Islam had spread throughout Arabia, Africa, Southern and Eastern Europe , Asia , and India. 11

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