Spanish Grammar Book

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Grammar Book:

Grammar Book Pablo Brenneman

Table of Contents:

Table of Contents table of contents refranes 1. ser y estar 2. nacionalidades ( , ?) 3. all stemchangers IYF (in your face) 4. para + para expressions 5. IOP + DOP 6. Object pronoun placement 7. Affirmative/Negative words 8. Verbs like gustar 9. -ísimos (expressing extremes) 10. IOP+DOP+SE 11. Reflexive verbs 12. Tú commands (affirmative + irregulars/negative + irregulars) 13. preterit 14. adverbs 15. past participles as adjectives 16. present progressive + irregulars 17. modal verbs 18. works cited OR cited on each page


Refranes No todo lo que brilla es oro. Su sonrisa no cuenta pero vale la pena. Barriguta llena, corazón contento. A buena hambre no hay mal pan. No se hacen tortillas sin hamper huevos. Escoba nueva barre bien. A quien madruga dios la ayuda. Los muertos no hablan ni hacen ruidos. ¡Ponte las pilas! Escoba nueva barre bien. Mi casa es su casa.

Ser vs Estar:

Ser vs Estar Ser-is used for date, occupation, characteristics, time, origin, and relation. If you put them in that order it makes the acronym DOCTOR. Soy, Eres, Es, Somos, Son. Estar-is used for position, location, action, condition, and emotion. If you put them in that order it makes the acronym PLACE. Estoy, Est ás, Está, Estamos, Están.


Nacionalidades Cubano, Colombina, España, Costa Rica , El Salvador, Coasta Rica, Bolivia, Venezuela, Cuba, Chile, El Salvador, Columbia, Honduras, Guirea, Uragauy, Republica Dominicana, Puerto Rico, Peru, Paraguay, Panama, Nicaragua, Mexico, Guatemala, Ecuador

Stem Changers IYF:

Stem Changers IYF With stem changers you will change a certain vowel into another vowel or letters like that. You will change -e to -ie. You will change -e to -i. You will change -o to -ue. Like the word c e rrar, which is a stem changers, will go to c ie rro. The word p e dir, which is also a stem changer, will go to p i do. The word d o rmir, which is a stem changer as well, will change to d ue rme

Para + Para Expressions:

Para + Para Expressions The Spanish prepositions por and para are found in a number of common expressions, idioms, and locations. ¡A por ellos! 1.After them! Get them! Dar gato por liebre. 2.To put something over on someone. Día por día. 3.Day by day. Estar para. 4.To be about to. Para entonces. 5.By that time. Para otra vez. 6. For another occasion.


IOP + DOP Ellos me los dan. They give them to me. IO pronoun: me DO pronoun: los Ella te la vende. She sells it to you. IO pronoun: te DO pronoun: la Me You (familiar) Him, her, it, you (formal) us You-all (familiar) them, you-all (formal) Me Te Le Nos Os Les Me Te Lo, La Nos Os Los, Las DO Pronouns IO Pronouns English Equivalent

Object Pronoun Placement:

Object Pronoun Placement Add the pronoun to the infinitive. Add the pronoun to a progressive tense. Add the pronoun to an affirmative command. Put the pronoun before the conjugated verb. Yo lo miro. 1. I watch it. I give you the money. 2. Yo te doy el dinero.

Affirmative/Negative Words:

Affirmative/Negative Words The affirmative words would be 1.alguien (someone, anyone) 2.algo (something, anyhting) 3.siempre (always) 4.tambien (also, too) 5.alg ún (a, any), alguna (a,any) 6. algunas (some, any), algunos (some, any) 7.Y (and), O (or) The negative words would be 1.nadie (no one, nobody) 2.nada (nothing) 3.nunca (never) 4.tampoco (neither, either) 5.ning ún (none, not one) ninguna (none, not one) (nor, not even) ni (neither...nor)

Verbs like Gustar:

Verbs like Gustar Me gusta el cuarto. 1.I like the room. Nos gustan los libros. 2.We like the books. Yo molesto mi hermano 3. I bother my brother. Baloncesto me interesa. 4. Basketball interests me. El sándwich es faltar queso. The green is other verbs like gustar.

-ísimos (expressing extremes):

-ísimos (expressing extremes) lind o (pretty), lind ísimo (very pretty). Drop the end vowel and add on ísimos in the correct conjugated form on the end of the word. alto (tall), altísimo ( very tall) ísimos add more emphasis to the word or make it a bigger stronger word. ri co (rich), ri qu ísimo (very rich) feli z (happy), feli c ísimo (very happy) Make sure you also correctly conjugate the first word, not just the ísimos.


IOP+DOP+SE All three have Me, Te, Os, and Nos. When it comes to the he, she/usted and they/ustedes they all change. It depends on what form it is in. The Se has se used instead of Lo/La and Le. Se is also used instead of Los/Las and Les. It just depends on the pronoun placement and what person you are in and talking with. Se 1.Me, 2.Te, 3. Se, 4. Nos, 5. Os, 6. Se.

Reflexive Verbs:

Reflexive Verbs If the subject in the sentence is preforming an action on themselves then the verb is Reflexive. A nd the pronoun used to receive the action is reflexive. Levanta goes to Levantarse and means to get up. Just make sure you conjugate the verb correctly. Peino or Peinar changes to Peinarse and it means to comb. So if you were combing your own hair you would use peinarse.

Tú commands (affirmative + irregulars/negative + irregulars) :

Tú commands (affirmative + irregulars/negative + irregulars) Remember the Song Di, Haz, Ve, Pon, Sal, S é, Ten, Ven. It helps if you go to the tune of Deck the Halls. Compra (tú) el anillo. 1.(You) Buy the ring. Escribe (tú) la tarea. 2.(You) Do the homework. Compra (tú) los libros. 3.(You) Buy the books. Come (tú) la patata. 4.(You) Eat the potato.

Preterit :

Preterit Preterits are used for past actions. For -ar verbs simply drop the ending and add: 1. é 2.aste 3.ó 4.amos 5.asteis 6.aron For -er verbs simply drop the ending and add: 1.í 2.iste 3.ió 4.imos 5.isteis 6.ieron That’s also the for -ir verbs. Ella caminó por el parque. 1. She walked through the park.


Adverbs Add -mente to the end of the adjective. -mente is the equivalent to the common English ending -ly which most people asses with an adverb. Necessary in Spanish is necesario and in adverb form it's necessarily and necesariomente. Lazy in Spanish is perezoso and in adverb form it's lazily and perezosamente. Quick in Spanish is r ápido and in adverb form it's quickly and rápidamente.

Past participles as adjectives :

Past participles as adjectives You drop the ending off the verbs and then add an -ado or -ido depending on whether it is an -ar, -ir, or -er verbs. If it is an -ar verb you put -ado at the end. If it is an -er or -ir verb you put -ido at the end. Cerrar, which means closed, you would drop the -AR and add the -ado at the end. The word would then become cerrado and would mean is closed. This will apply for all of the Past Participles.

Present progressive + irregulars:

Present progressive + irregulars For the Present Progressives you need to drop the end and add -ando. Depending on what it ends on, you could also it with an -iendo. For Present Progressives you in the action of doing it. Pensar, which means to think, you would drop the -AR and add the -ando to make it pensando to change it to thinking. Perder, which means to lose, you would drop the -ER and add the -iendo to make it perdiendo to change it to losing.

Modal verbs :

Modal verbs A modal verb is a type of verb that is used to indicate modality which is, likelihood, ability, permission, and obligation. Deber, Desear, Necesitar, Poder, Querer, Saber, Soler. These are just a few modal verbs. Modal verbs are unique and stand out. These modal verbs mean: should, ought to, must; to desire; to need; can, could, might, be able to; want, would like to; know, know how to; usually, used to. Some of these modal verbs in English are to your left.

Works cited OR cited on each page:

Works cited OR cited on each page -All credit goes to rightful owners and authors. All information and/or other props. Taken from these websites are used for Educational purposes only, provided by law that it is legal to do so.