EDEM 644 day 6 May 27

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Play as curriculum : 

Play as curriculum May 19th, 2010

Play is nature’s curriculum : 

Play is nature’s curriculum Natural -demonstrated in mammals as well as humans (even Crows) Evolves with age and aids in maturity of brain Some children have trouble understanding how I works (too Ludic)

Origins of word : 

Origins of word Anglo-Saxon plegan, which means "to strike or clap" (Oxford English Dictionary, 1986). Ludic comes from the French 'ludique', defined as play or play activity (Robert, 1986). Ludicrous = extremely foolish (OED)

Ludic : 

Ludic Actions not based on any biological need, where the intent is simple pleasure. Primal needs (eating, sleeping, etc.) motivate behavior - play has nothing to do with any of these needs. (Berlyne, 1960)

What is play? : 

What is play? Hard to define: Myriad of behaviors Occurs in animals Teenage, becomes internalized as imagination (Vygotsky) Continues into adulthood (Video games, sports)

(Berlyne, 1960) : 

(Berlyne, 1960) Need for arousal in central nervous system functioning. Central nervous system of an organism seeks to maintain an optimal level of arousal. When this level is elevated because of novelty, the organism seeks to reduce the arousal level by getting information

Play face : 

Play face Need to increase arousal might lead to conflict. Social signal has been devised to reduce the dangers of such arousal seeking. “Play face" is used to reduce these risks, in both humans and animals (Bruner, 1973).

Balancing act : 

Balancing act Between the need for stimulation and arousal, and the need to reduce that arousal

Function of Play : 

Function of Play What do you think? Think- pair-share

1. Relaxation and recreation theory : 

1. Relaxation and recreation theory Plato stated that the need for pleasure was a necessary element in the pursuit of knowledge (Edwards, 1967). Follows physical attributes - in order for muscles to grow stronger, we must rest

2. Play as surplus energy(Spenser, Erikson) : 

2. Play as surplus energy(Spenser, Erikson) Popularized by Spencer (1905), notion that children have a certain amount of energy, and that the demands of the day not always enough to use it all. When circumstances allow, play tendencies are stimulated, but after energy is used, tendencies subside.* Mammalians who do not need to feed or protect themselves because their parents do it for them (Erickson, 1950). *Weakness in this theory is that children will often play beyond the point of exhaustion (Rubin et al., 1983).

3. Cathartic Theory : 

3. Cathartic Theory Play has the function of allowing organisms to work out pent-up emotions and frustrations (, 1950). Children will often go over unresolved events or repeat the day's events with more satisfactory outcomes. Child uses his or her power over objects (both imaginary and real) to master life. Erickson

4. Recapitulation Theory (Hall) : 

4. Recapitulation Theory (Hall) Play reproduces the biological evolution (children first "swim" as in the frog, crawls like a quadruped, then ape like climbing, (Hall, 1905) Hall stated that children pass through all of the developmental stages of the entire human race. wandering tribes, the hunter, war, etc. Through play the child channels wild primitive urges into a situation of social life accepted in the social context (Smilansky, 1990).

5. Psychoanalytic Theory(Freud) : 

5. Psychoanalytic Theory(Freud) "Pleasure principle", first espoused by Freud (1922), more modern approach describing the function of play as "wish fulfillment". Also symbolic of the situation: If the child throws the object away, possible expression of revenge - "If you don't want to stay with me, I don't want you."

6."macro/microsphere (Erikson, 1950) : 

6."macro/microsphere (Erikson, 1950) World shared with others; others are first treated as things. Learning is necessary to discover what potential play can be admitted to fantasy, Macrosphere or "replication” play. “Microcosmic" world of toys, and what kind of play can be shared with others and forced upon them (Erikson, 1950). Erikson sums up that play is how children come to master their world - child's play is the infantile form of the human ability to deal with experience Like Freud, Erikson believes children replicate past events, constructing the situation where one can relive situations with positive outcomes

7. Practice TheoryPiaget : 

7. Practice TheoryPiaget Play as practicing motor ability Early play is sensory motor in orientation (1945) Child masters the action, and can thus build upon this ability in ever increasing complexity of movement Three-month-old who "plays" with his voice 2. Practicing adult roles. Dramatic play to practice adult roles

Activity 1 : 

Activity 1 Compare and contrast theories (PMI)* Weaknesses? Strengths? Plus-Minus-Interesting (PMI)--considering the positive, negative, and interesting or thought-provoking aspects of an idea or alternative using a balance sheet grid where plus and minus refer to criteria identified (de Bono, 1976; Janis & Mann, 1977);

Constructivism : 

Constructivism Vygotsky stated all play is social – rule based Situation as expressed psychologically through perception, and the perception as limited by the child's affective and motor ability. Perception of the situation and the ability to follow rules and suppress the affective develops with maturity

Social Constructivism : 

Social Constructivism Social interaction plays a fundamental role in the process of cognitive development. Jean Piaget stated development precedes learning Vygotsky felt social learning precedes development* * Vygotsky critiqued Piaget in 1934 – Piaget replied in 1963

(Vygotsky, 1934/78) : 

(Vygotsky, 1934/78) “Every function in the child’s cultural development appears twice: first, on the social level, and later, on the individual level; first, between people (interpsychological) and then inside the child (intrapsychological).”

Curriculum of play : 

Curriculum of play Leads to learning and mastery (Piaget) Imagination (leads to divergent thinking) Practice (leads to mastery) Communication (lead to thinking) Social learning (rule and roles)

Learning Rules : 

Learning Rules Internally imposed rules prepare the child for externally imposed ones (games with rules) (Piaget, 1945) Rules and regulations implicit in all play (Vygotsky, 1978; Verba, 1990; Jordan et al. 1995). Child subordinates herself with rules that renounce freedom. (Vygotsky, 1978). Play is not always Pleasurable (might lose)

Role of rules : 

Role of rules Sets of rules that participants are mutually aware of. Even in socio-dramatic play, there are externally prescribed rules (Jordan et al., 1995). "What passes unnoticed by the child in life becomes a rule of behaviour in play" (Vygotsky, 1978, p. 95).

Play to Imagination : 

Play to Imagination Vygotsky states that imagination is play without action Play of the young leads to the imagination of the adolescent. Imaginary situations develop abstract thought Imagination can take the child to a higher level of thought than is available in everyday experience, within the confines of rules of behaviour

Imaginary play: learning the rules of the game (and life) : 

Imaginary play: learning the rules of the game (and life)

Play as curriculum : 

Play as curriculum Play buy itself does not constitute curriculum (Moyles, 1989) How does play teach us? Can we use play to teach?

Piaget : 

Piaget Piaget (1945) saw play as a cycle: Children enter stage of development, go through a series of different types of play The cycle repeats itelf at each new developmental stage at a higher level of maturity, reflecting child's cognitive abilities in that stage.

Piaget’s stages : 

Piaget’s stages Functional play Symbolic play Games with rules. Constructive play serves as a transition from one type of play to the next.

Functional play : 

Functional play Sensory motor stage - just exploration (or exploratory) at first (playing with voice) Functional play is the first true play Use of objects in play for the purposes for which they were intended e.g., using simple objects correctly

Symbolic play : 

Symbolic play Child learns to replace desired objects with symbols (pretend play) In the pre‑operational stage, symbolic play becomes dominant, but functional play still takes place when the child is presented with novel objects or situation.

Transitional play : 

The constructive transition involves the constructions of objects that facilitate the use of symbols (building a house out of blocks). “Creating” something Transitional play

Games with rules : 

Games with rules Games with rules are games with sensory - motor combinations or intellectual combinations in which there is competition (or cooperation) between members (Piaget, 1945). Preset rules that are non-negotiable. Can be made by temporary agreement (spontaneous). May be symbolic but lost their imaginative content. Form of play that follows us to our adult lives (Smilansky, 1968).

Curriculum of PlayGrowth of social animal : 

Curriculum of PlayGrowth of social animal In 1932 Mildred B. Parten observed children and developed a system for classifying play roughly following Piaget’s stages. Researchers later found not mutually exclusive – children still engage in lower levels of play into adulthood

Slide 34: 

Unoccupied Play Child is not actually “playing” but watches anything that happens to catch his interest. Continues into older stages and is one of the “Codes” of joining group play.

Slide 35: 

Solitary (Independent) Play Play by themselves and are not comfortable interacting with other children. Play apart within speaking distance Little interest in making contact.

Slide 36: 

Parallel Play Occupy space near others, but seldom share toys or materials. Conversation is solitary Attempts to communicate egocentric (one child may talk about a TV show while another interrupts with news about their birthday).

Slide 37: 

Associative Play Children lend, borrow, and take toys from others. Beginning to engage in close personal contact Still consider their own viewpoint as most important. Children are not yet ready to participate in teams or groups Gradually learn how to communicate their needs.

Slide 38: 

Children working and playing together. Share, take turns, and allow some children to serve as leaders of group. Negotiation of roles and rules Cooperative Play (highest form)

Chicken-egg enigma : 

Chicken-egg enigma Which comes first-play or cognition?

Clues : 

Clues Many children with Autism/Aspergers have trouble with play Some get trapped in sensory-motor stage (stemming) Play therapy used for children to learn social cues Recent finding that bilingual children score higher on simple tasks but bilingual children who play more than one hour of video games per day score highest (why?)

Activity 2 : 

Activity 2 Think – Pair – Share Which came first Evidence?

What skills beyond social? : 

What skills beyond social? Strategy (Chess, video games) Critical thinking (Clue, other board games, video games) More please . . .

Curriculum & Assessment : 

Curriculum & Assessment Remember importance of assessment? - Review last class speaker How do we create play curriculum? How do we assess play?* * Creating need – very Vygotskian

Nature’s curriculum? : 

Nature’s curriculum? Structure of Curriculum (Wood & Attfield, 1996) Planning (Defining aims and intentions) Organization (space, resources, time, adult role Implementation (Activities/experiences) Assessment (Loops back into learning) Evaluation

Wood & Attfield curriculum of Play : 

Wood & Attfield curriculum of Play

Structured play model : 

Structured play model Give them a topic via story read (e.g. what is a city “country mouse, city mouse”) Opportunity to play – blocks, dramatic play (pre-think props) Task- Build a city Allow for free play (assess talk) Children present their city Evaluate:was learning appropriate–adapt or move on

Skills being taught : 

Skills being taught Negotiating and listening in a group Understanding planning and design Being able to implement a plan Selecting and using materials Acting independently and collaboratively Asking for assistance Creating, identifying and solving problems (QEP) Remembering how the plan was carried out Reflecting on action Conscious awareness of thinking process (metacogniton) Making and sustaining relationships with peers and adults

Activity 3 : 

Activity 3 How can we use these principles to create a curriculum of play Groups of 3 -4 create a quick curriculum using the notions thus discussed for different age groups 4-5 years; 6 -7; 8 – 10; 11 – 12; 13- 14

Bibliography : 

Bibliography Erikson, E.H. (1950). Childhood and society. New York: W.W. Norton. Freud, S. (1922). Beyond the pleasure principle. London, Hogarth Press. Freud, S. (1983). The Pelican Freud Library. (Vol. 1). Angela Richards (Ed.). Moyles, J. Just Playing? The status of Play in Early Childhood Education. OUP: Bucks(1989) Piaget, J. (1945). Play, dreams and imitation in childhood. NY; W.W. Norton & Company, Inc. Parten, M.B. (1932). Social participation among pre-school children. American Journal of Sociology, 27, 243 ‑269. Piaget, J. (1952). The origins of intelligence of children. NY: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc. (Original work published in 1936). Smilansky, S. & Shefataga, L. (1990). Facilitating play: A medium for promoting cognitive, socio-emotional, and academic Development in young children. Maryland: Psychological and Educational Publications. Verba, M. (1994). The beginnings of collaboration in peer interaction. Human Development, 37, 125-139. Vygotsky, L. (1994). Thought and Language. Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press. Vygotsky, L. (1978). Society and the Mind. Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press. Vygotsky, L. (1986). Imagination and creativity in Childhood. Unpublished English translation by F. Smolucha, Chicago, University of Chicago. (Original work published 1930). Vygotksy, L.S. (1987). The development of imagination in childhood. In R. W. Reiber & A. S. Carton (Eds.), The collected works of L.S. Vygotsky (Vol. 2). (N. Minick Trans.). NY: Plenum. (Original work published 1932). Wood, E & Attfield, J. (1996). Play, Learning and he Early Childhood Curriculum. London: Paul Chapman Publishing Ltd.

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