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Common names -:

Common names - Panax Asiatic ginseng Chinese ginseng Ginseng root Pannag Ninjin Scientific names: Panax ginseng or Panax quinquefolius

Biological Source -:

Biological Source - Ginseng is any one of eleven species of slow-growing perennial plants with fleshy roots, belonging to the genus Panax of the family - Araliaceae

Geographical sources -:

Geographical sources - Ginseng is found only in the Northern Hemisphere, in North America and in eastern Asia (mostly Korea , northern China ( Manchuria ), and eastern Siberia ), typically in cooler climates .

Part used- ROOTS:

Part used- ROOTS

Plant description-:

Plant description - It is a prennial herb with a short rhizome attached to a fleshy root & has a single stem with a compound leaves & a clusters of single white flowers that develop into bright red fruit


CULTIVATION - It is prennial growing to 0.8 to 0.7cm it is cultivated by seed propagation method . The ripe seeds are collected & sown in a nursery beds in months of november . After about a period of 5 to 6 months the seedlings are transplanted in the open fields ,proper shade is provided for protecting it from direct sun light & plants are allowed to grow for 3 to 5 yrs . The drug is harvested in between july to october .


CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS- Several classes of compounds have been isolated from ginseng root. These include triterpene saponins, essential oil-containing polyacetylenes and sesquiterpenes, polysaccharides, peptidoglycans, nitrogen-containing compounds, compounds such as fatty acids, carbohydrates, and phenolic compounds as the majo r biologically active constituents - the 20(S)- protopanaxadiol and 20(S)- protopanaxatriol

Chemical structures-:

Chemical structures-

General uses-:

Ginseng is widely used for its anti -stress, anticancer, immune system modulation, cardiovascular, CNS, and hormonal effects, and for improvement of athletic performance. General uses-

Side Effects-:

Side Effects- Allergic reactions have been reported. Inappropriate use of P.ginsengor ginseng abuse syndrome includes symptoms - such as high blood pressure, diarrhea, sleeplessness, breast pain, skin rash, confusion, and depression .

Dosage of Ginseng- :

Dosage of Ginseng- crude preparations of dried root powder 1 to 2 g can be taken daily for up to 3 months. In numerous clinical trials, the dosage of crude root has ranged from 0.5 to 3 g/day and the dose of extracts has generally ranged from 100 to 400 mg.

Substitutes / Adultrants-:

Substitutes / Adultrants- Codonopsis tangshen a bell flowered plant used by poor people in china as a substitute for costly ginseng. Ginseng is sometimes adultrated with senega root & with virginian snake roots .

Marketed preparations-:

Marketed preparations-


REFERENCE JARALD EDWIN .E textbook of pharmacognosy edition -1, 2007 CBS publishers New Delhi .



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