Grammar Book Semester 1and2

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Grammar Book:

Olivia Armstrong Grammar Book

Table of Contents:

Preterite Imperfect Por /Para Possessive Adjectives and Pronouns Ud / Uds Commands Present Subjunctive Subjunctive with Verbs of Will and Influence Subjunctive with Verbs of Emotion Doubt, disbelief, and denial Conjunctions Subjunctive in adjective clauses Tu commands Nosotros commands Past participles used as adjectives Present perfect Past perfect Future tense Conditional tense Past subjunctive Table of Contents

Preterite:

AR é amos aste ó aron Preterite ER í imos íste ió ieron Preterito Cucaracha Verbs Andar Anduv- Estar Estuv- Poder Pud- Poner Pus- Querer Quis- Saber Sup- Tener Tuv- Venir Vin- Conducir Conduj- Producir Produj- Traducir Traduj- Decir Dij - Traer Traj - -e - iste -o - imos - isteis - ieron Dar/ ver Di/ vi Dimos/ vimos Diste/ viste Dio/ vio Dieron/ vieron Spock Verbs Ir/ ser Fui Fuimos Fuiste Fue Fueron Hacer Hice Hicimos Hiciste Hizo Hicieron Snake/ Snakey Stem Changers Dormí Dormiste Durmió Dormimos Durmieron Y Changers Leí Leímos Leíste Leyó Leyeron Trigger words Ayer, anoche, anteayer, la semana pasada, el mes pasado, el año pasado

Imperfect:

Imperfect Can be used -to speak about background events in a story -to talk about something you used to do as a matter of habit -to speak about how old someone was -to say what time it was Ser Ir Ver Era Iba Veía Eras Ibas Veías Era Iba Veía Éramos Íbamos Veíamos Erais Ibais Veíais Eran Iban Veían -ar Cantar -er Tener -ir Salir Cantaba Tenia Salía Cantabas Tenias Salías Cantaba Tenia Salía Cantábamos Teníamos Salíamos Cantabais Teníais Salíais Cantaban Tenían Salían -er and –ir verb endings include – ía . -ar verb endings include –aba/ -ába. 3 IRREGULARS --------------- 

Por y para:

Por y para Por is usually talking about going through something ( PORtal ) Para is usually talking about going to something

Possessive Adjectives and Pronouns:

Possessive Adjectives and Pronouns Adjectives Short Form Mi (s) Nuestro (a/ os /as) Tu (s) Su(s) Su(s) Singular Mío (a) Nuestro (a) Tuyo (a) Suyo (a) Suyo (a) Long Form Plural Míos (as) Nuestros (as) Tuyos (as) Suyos (as) Suyos (as) Pronouns These also form personal relationships To form one, you Use the long form of the possessive adjective Add el, la, los, las according to the gender and number of the noun it replaces A verb used reflexively tells you that only the subject of the verb is involved in the action. When using a reflexive verb in the infinitive form, attach the pronoun to the infinitive

Ud/Uds Commands:

Ud / Uds Commands Irregulars Command forms are used to give orders or advice. Usted and ustedes can be used to refer to a group of people or in formal situations. HOW REGULARS ARE FORMED: Drop the final –o of the yo form of the present tense For – ar verbs, add –e or –en & for – ir – er verbs, add –a or -an IRREGULARITY IN YO FORM- same irregularity in formal commands: Conducir , conocer , decir , hacer , ofrecer , oír , poner , salir , tener , traducir , traer , venir , & ver **Stem changers keep stem change in commands -car, -gar, - zar verbs have a spelling change: c > qu g > gu z > c To make a command negative, put a no before the verb R&O pronouns attach to end of verb – add accents In negative commands, the pronouns precede the verb

Present Subjunctive:

Present Subjunctive USES: Will and influence Emotion Doubt, disbelief, and denial Indefiniteness and nonexistence The subjunctive mood expresses the speaker’s attitude toward events, actions, or states that the speaker views are uncertain or hypothetical To form it: 1) put in yo form of verb, 2) drop the –o, 3) add the subjunctive ending -AR VERBS PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE -e - emos - es -e -en -ER,-IR VERBS PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE -a - amos -as -a -an IRREGULAR YO IRREGULARS **Subjunctive form of hay = haya -car,-gar,- zar have spelling change in all forms - ar and – er stem changers have same as present indicative - ir stem changers have same + nosotros form thing MUST: 2 clauses Que Verbos especiales 2 subjects

Subjunctive Verbs of Will and Influence:

Subjunctive Verbs of Will and Influence Verbs of Will and Influence Sugerir (e- ie ): to suggest Rogar (o- ue ): to beg, to plead Recomendar (e- ie ): to recommend Prohibar : to prohibit Mandar : to order Insistir (en): to insist (on) Importar : to be important; to matter Aconsejar : to advise **FORM AS A SUBJUNCTIVE** >used when someone wants to affect the actions or behavior of other people >

Subjunctive with Verbs of Emotion:

Subjunctive with Verbs of Emotion When the main clause of a sentence expresses an emotion or feeling, use the subjunctive in the subordinate clause >Use the infinitive after an expression of emotion when there is no change of subject**** EX: Temo llegar tarde (I’m concerned I’ll arrive late) Ojalá que is followed by the subjunctive TO FORM: main clause with verb of emotion in the present indicative + que then subordinate clause with subjunctive verb according to second subject

Doubt, Disbelief, and DEnial:

Doubt, Disbelief, and DEnial The subjunctive is used with expressions of doubt , disbelief , and denial The subjunctive is used in a subordinate clause when there is a change of subject and the main clause implies negation or uncertainty Like in previous slide , use infinitive after no change in subject *** es posible y es probable implies inherent uncertainty and therefore triggers the subjunctive in the subordinate clause , creer expresses belief or certainty , followed by indicitve Quizás and tal vez imply an uncertain possibility and are usually followed by subjunctive

Conjunctions:

Conjunctions words or phrases that connect clauses in sentences – introduce adverbial clauses – always require subjunctive use the infinitive after the prepositions antes de, para, and sin when there is not change in subject use the indicative if verb in main clause expresses habitual actions or past action use the subjunctive in subordinate clause if main clause expresses future or command

Subjunctive in Adjective Clauses:

Subjunctive in Adjective Clauses The subjunctive is used in some sentences after adverbial clauses after certain conjunctions It is also used when you describe a noun or pronoun in the main clause of a sentence and is indefinite or uncertain following que ** refers to antecedent Refers to a kind of vague subject (well indirect object) VERBS COMMONLY having adjective clauses with the subjunctive

Tú Commands:

Tú Commands IRREGULARS Tú commands are used when you want to give an order or advice to someone you normally address with tú . HOW TO FORM: AFFIRMATIVE– put in the usted / ella / él form of the present indicative >> with reflexives, IOP, DOP: attach reflexive pronoun in the proper form, IOP, and/or DOP to the end of the conjugated verb, then add accent three or four syllables from the right NEGATIVE– put no, then put the verb in its regular yo form. Next, add the opposite ending ( ar -e, er / ir - a) then add – s >>put reflexives, IOP, and DOP BEFORE THE VERB and AFTER no IR and VER have the same Tú command – context determines which

Nosotros COmmands:

Nosotros COmmands Nosotros /as commands, which correspond to English let’s + (verb ), are used to give orders or suggestions that include yourself and others HOW TO FORM: (first person plural form of the present subjunctive) Put it in the yo form Put the ending in the first person plural ( nosotros ) Change the ending to the opposite vowel ( er / ir -a, ar -e) IF REFLEXIVE: - AFFIRMATIVE: add nos to the ending, while taking out the previous s (MONO VERBS) - NEGATIVE : put no then the reflexive in FRONT of verb ^^ negative same with IOP and DOP However, with affirmative IOP and DOP , add to the ending without erasing the s then add the accent 3 front right IRREGULARS: > tengamos > vengamos > digamos > vamos , no vayamos , > seamos > hagamos , hayamos > pongamos > sepamos *** no two s ’s together and no two l ’s together

Past Participles Used as Adjectives:

Past Participles Used as Adjectives > Past participles are the verbs that have been previously done (- ed verbs) In spanish , use –ado and – ido to form them, can be used as ADJECTIVES **The past participles of - er and – ir verbs whose stems end in –a, -e, or –o carry a written accent mark on the i of the – ido ending >Used as adjectives to describe something, often used with ESTAR >Past participles must agree in gender and number with the nouns they modify

Present Perfect:

Present Perfect Present perfect indicative is used to talk about what someone has done FORMED: Present tense of haber + past participle **The past participle agrees with the noun in gender and number when it functions as an adjective but not when it is part of the present perfect tense Haber and the past participle cannot be separated by any word >> The word no and any object or reflexive pronouns are placed before haber ****The present perfect form of “hay” is “ha habido ”

Past Perfect:

Past Perfect The past perfect indicative is used to talk about what someone had done or what had occurred before another past action, event, or state. TO FORM: The imperfect form of haber + the past participle HABÍA HABÍAMOS HABÍAS HABÍA HABÍAN *** Often used with the word “ ya ” which means already >>> Nothing separates HABER and the past participle (they are married)

Future Tense:

Future Tense TO FORM: Infinitive + -é - ás -á - emos - éis - án AR, ER, IR In Spanish, the future tense consists of one word, whereas in English it is made up of the auxiliary verb will or shall and the main verb

Conditional Tense:

Conditional Tense TO FORM: Infinitive + - ía - ías - ía - íamos - íais -an AR, ER, IR While in English the conditional is made up of the auxiliary verbs would, should, could, in Spanish it consists of one word – what would or would happen under certain circumstances

Past Subjunctive:

Past Subjunctive TO FORM: Uds , ellos , ellas form of the preterite then dropping the – ron ending, then add the past subjunctive endings - ra - ramos - ras - ra -ran Irregulars in the Preterite *** -IR stem changing verbs and other verbs with spelling changes follow the same rules It is used in the same contexts and situations as present subjunctive, but describes actions that have already happened.