6049.-BUILDING-STONES

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BUILDING STONES:

BUILDING STONES

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Stone → One of the oldest building material. Rock : A large concreted mass of earthy or mineral matter or broken pieces of such a mass. Stone : Quarried or smaller pieces of rock for a specified function such as a building block

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Rocks are made up of minerals. Such as: Feldspars Quartz Micas Hornblende Kaolinite Calcite (CaCO 3 ) Dolomite (MgCO 3 )

GEOLOGICAL CLASSES OF ROCKS:

GEOLOGICAL CLASSES OF ROCKS Igneous : Formed by cooling and thus solidfying from a molten state. (Granite, Basalt) Sedimentary : Formed by a process of cementation of small particles that result from the disintegration of rocks. (Limestone, sandstone) Metamorphic Rocks : Formed by gradual changes in the structures of either igneous or sedimentary rocks caused by heat, water, pressure. (Marble, Slate)

COMMONLY USED BUILDING STONES:

COMMONLY USED BUILDING STONES Granite : Intrusive igneous rock Intrusive:crystallized slowly within the earth Granite is a strong, hard & non-porous rock It is a desirable foundation & building material. Basalt : Extrusive igneous rock Extrusive:rapidly crystallized on the surface of earth Basalt is hard & strong but it is porous & have fractures.

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Limestone : Sedimentary rock It is used as a concrete aggregate It is used in the production of cement & lime Marble : Metamorphosed limestone Harder than limestone Used for interior work or wall or column facing Slate : Metamorphosed clay Used for flooring, interior or exterior wall facing .

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GRANITE SLATE MARBLE BASALT LIMESTONE

PRODUCTION STEPS:

PRODUCTION STEPS Quarrying : Big chunks are cut at the side, loosened at the bottom by wedging & removed by cranes Shaping & Finishing : Taken to the factory & cut and finished to the desired shapes.

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QUARRYING

PROPERTIES OF STONES:

PROPERTIES OF STONES Durability : mainly abrasion Strength Both strength & durability are affected by the texture & mineral composition, chemical charactersitics & physical characteristics. Porosity Water Absorption Coefficient of thermal expansion Fire resistance