Erosion & Weathering BY lc ct ds md

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Erosion & Weathering:

Erosion & Weathering By: Luke Carlson, Caleb Tonozzi, Daniel Sabotta, Michael Dzierzynski

Weathering & Physical Weathering:

Weathering & Physical Weathering Weathering is the breaking down of rocks soils and minerals as well as artificial minerals through contacts with the Earth’s atmosphere biota and waters. Two important types of weathering are physical and chemical weathering. Physical weathering involves the break-down of rocks and soils. The picture shows what happens after physical weathering.

Chemical Weathering :

Chemical Weathering The second type of weathering is chemical weathering. It involves the direct effect of atmospheric chemicals or biologically produced chemicals in the breakdown of rocks soil and minerals. The materials left over after the rock breaks down combined with organic material creates soil. The picture on the right is a picture of chemical weathering.

Erosion:

Erosion Erosion is the process by which soil and rock are removed from the earths surface by natural processes such as wind, or water flow then transported and deposited in other locations. Erosion is a natural process, human activities have increased the rate of erosion is occurring ten to forty times more. The picture on the right shows erosion has cleared out a trench.

Erosion Part 2:

Erosion Part 2 Water and wind erosion are now the two primary causes of land degradation. Together they are responsible for 84% of degraded acreage, making excessive erosion one of the most significant global environmental problems. The picture on the right shows that erosion is destroying a farmers crop.

Causes of Weathering & Erosion:

Causes of Weathering & Erosion The suns heat causes surface rocks to expand and crack. Rain dissolves atmospheric gases that form acids that mix with minerals in surface layers. Water can also freeze at night and in the winter, expanding cracks and carrying away smaller rocks and dust. Wind and water also carries small particles that can impact and erode rocks and carry loose soil.

Causes of Weathering & Erosion Part 2:

Causes of Weathering & Erosion Part 2 Many plants ooze acids in their roots that dissolve minerals they need. Root structures also enlarge cracks seeking water. Animals crush surface rocks in deposit organic materials that interact with minerals. The picture on the right shows that water erosion has carved out the bumps in the mountain.

Factors Controlling the Rate of Erosion :

Factors Controlling the Rate of Erosion Soil erosion includes processes of detachment of soil particles from the soil mass and the transport and deposition of sediment particles. Soil erosion is the source of 99% of the suspended soil loads and waterways in the U.S undoubtedly around the world. The picture on the right shows erosion on a road.

Factors Controlling the Rate of Erosion Part 2:

Factors Controlling the Rate of Erosion Part 2 Soil erosion is very complicated problem to solve because there are so many factors which effect the rate of erosion. These factors include rainfall, soil type, landscape, crops and farm management. As rainfalls from the sky it has tremendous force and impacts the soil. It can break away small portions of soil. The picture on the right shows that erosion has made a tree fall over.

Differences Between Erosion & Weathering :

Differences Between Erosion & Weathering Weathering involves two processes that often work in concert to decompose rocks. Both processes occur in place. There is no movement involved in weathering. Chemical weathering involves a chemical change in at least some of the materials within a rock. Mechanical weathering involves physically breaking rocks into fragments. The picture on top is erosion and on bottom is weathering.

Soil Erosion:

Soil Erosion Soil is naturally removed by the action of water or wind. Such background soil erosion has been occurring for about 450 million years! In general background erosion removes soil at almost the same rate as soil is formed. It is always a result of mankind’s unwise actions such as overgrazing or unsuitable cultivation practices. This picture shows soil erosion from water.

Study of Hopi Buttes Area:

Study of Hopi Buttes Area Hopi Buttes Volcanic Field is located on the Colorado Plateau mostly on the Navajo Reservation around the town Dilkon. The field covers an area of about 965 square miles and contains 300 low relief volcanic craters, and filled volcanic pipes. The picture on the right shows a picture of on of the Hopi Buttes Volcanos.

Erosion in the Southwest:

Erosion in the Southwest Erosion is carving into Southwest Washington beaches. Erosion rates at Cape Shoal water have averages over 100 feet per year for a century. In recent decades, new erosion hot spots have developed. Storm waves near the Grays Harbor South Jetty threatened the city of Westport facilities and a state park. The picture on the right shows erosion on a shore.

Coastal Erosion:

Coastal Erosion Coastal erosion is the wearing away of the land and the removal of beach or dune sediments by wave action, tidal currents, wave currents, or drainage. Waves generated by storms wind or fast moving motor craft, cause coastal erosion, which may take the form of long-term losses of sediment and rocks or merely the temporary redistribution of coastal sediments.

Beach Erosion:

Beach Erosion Coastal areas around the world must grapple with beach erosion, from things like waves crashing against the shore. Stopping beach erosion requires a deep understanding of its causes and a huge investment, though everyone can help out with. The picture to the right shows beach erosion has cleared out the sand under the ladder.

Landslides:

Landslides Landslides occur in all the 50 states in the United States. Landslides cause 1-2 billion dollars in damage each year. Landslides commonly occur in connection with other disasters such as earthquakes, volcanoes, wildfires, and floods. The picture to the right shows a landslide that has taken out part of the hill.

Landslides & Mudflows:

Landslides & Mudflows Major landslides are usually accompanied by a faint rumbling sound that will increase in volume as the landslide approaches. Also, the ground will pitch in one direction only and may begin shifting in the direction underneath your feet. The picture shows a landslide and a mudflow happening at the same time.

How to prevent Erosion :

How to prevent Erosion You can prevent erosion by planting vegetation, trees, ground cover, and also shrubs. Roots of these plants helps hold the soil in place. The soil will not be able to blow away, or wash away as easily. The picture to the right shows erosion washing out part of the land.

Bibliography :

Bibliography http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hopi_Buttes_volcanic_field http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_causes_weathering_and_erosion http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Weathering http://en.wiki.org/wiki/Erosion http://www.spindigo.com/doctorluke/www/Transcripts/agriculture_eng/2_10_soil_factors.htm http://geomaps.wr.usgs.gov/parks/misc/gweaero/html http://soilerosion.net http://www.ecy.wa.gov/programs/sea/coast/erosion/study.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coastal_erosion http://www.enviroment.ualberta.ca/SoilPosters/wind.cfm

Bibliography :

Bibliography http://www.ehow.com/way_5485616_ways-prevent-coastal-erosion.html http://landslides.usgs.gov/ http://sccounty01.co.santa-cruz.ca.us/oes/landslide%20and%20mudflow.htm

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