Pituitary gland disease

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Presentation Transcript

Pituitary gland diseases : 

Pituitary gland diseases Nitin Karmoe Bsc .Medical Technology

Pituitary Gland : 

Pituitary Gland Weight 600 mg Is located within the sella turcica Anatomically and functionally distinct anterior and posterior lobes

Pituitary Development : 

Pituitary Development The pituitary originate from different source. The anterior pituitary from Rathke´s pouch (which is an embryonic invaginationof the pharyngeal epithelium). The posterior pituitary from an outgrow of the hypothalamus.

Hypothalamic : 

Hypothalamic Hypothalamic neural cells syntetize specific releasing and inhibiting hormones that are secreted directly into the portal vessels of the pituitary stalk. Hypothalamic-pituitary portal plexus provides the major blood source for the anterior pituitary.

Slide 6: 

Pituitary cells are exposed to sharp spikes of releasing factors and turn release their hormones as discrete pulses.

Slide 7: 

Posterior lobe is directly innervated by hypothalamic neurons (supropticohypophyseal and tuberohypophyseal nerve tracs) via the pituitary stalk

Anterior Pituitary : 

Anterior Pituitary Is often referred to as the “MASTER GLAND” because, it orchestrates the complex regulatory functions of multiple other endocrine glands.

Produces six major hormones: : 

Produces six major hormones: Prolactin (PRL) Growth hormone (GH) Adrenoicorticotropin hormone (ACTH) Luteinizing hormone (LH) Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)

Anterior Pituitary Insufficiency : 

Anterior Pituitary Insufficiency

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Reduced pituitary function can result from inhereited disorders; more commonly, it is acquired and reflects the mass effects of tumors or the consequences of inflamation or vascular damage.

Developmental and Genetic Causes of Hypopituitarism : 

Developmental and Genetic Causes of Hypopituitarism Pituitary Displasia Tissue-Specific Factor Mutations Developmental Hypotalamic Dysfunction: Kallmann Syndrome Laurence-Moon-Bardet-Biedl Syndrome Fröhlich Syndrome Prader-Willi Syndrome.

Acquired Hypopituitarism : 

Acquired Hypopituitarism May be caused by accidental or neurosurgical trauma. Vascular events such as apoplexy Pituitary or hypothalamic neoplasms such as pituitary adenomas, craniopharyngiomas, or metastatic deposits. Inflammatory diseases such as lymphocytic hypophysitis. Infiltrative disorders such as sarcoidosis, hemochromatosis.

Hypothalamic Infiltration Disorders : 

Hypothalamic Infiltration Disorders Associated with sarcoidosis, histiocytosis X, amyloidosis, and hemochromatosis. Frequently involve both hypotalamic and pituitary. Diabetes insipidus occurs in half of patients with these disorders. Growth retardation is seen if attenuated GH secretion occurs before pubertal epiphyseal closure. Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and hyperprolactinemia are also common.

Inflammatory Lesions : 

Inflammatory Lesions Pituitary damage can be seen with chronic infections such as tuberculosis, opportunistic fungal infections associated with AIDS. Other inflammatory processes, such as granulomas or sarcoidosis.

Cranial Irradation : 

Cranial Irradation May result in Hypotalamic and pituitary disfunction, specially in children and adolescents who are more susceptible to damage following whole-brain or head and neck therapeutic irradiation. Up to two-thirds of patients ultimately develop hormone insufficiency afer a median dose of 50 Gy directed at the skull base.

Lymphocytic Hypophysitis : 

Lymphocytic Hypophysitis Occurs mainly in pregnant or post-partum women. It usually presents with hyperprolactinemia. Pituitary failure caused by diffuse lymphocytic infiltration may be trainsent or permanent but requires immediate treatment.

Pituitary Apoplexy : 

Pituitary Apoplexy May occur spontaneously in a preexisting adenoma (usually nonfunctioning); postpartum (Sheehan´s syndrome); or in association with diabetes, hypertension, or acute shock. Hyperplastic of the pituitary during pregnancy increases the risk for hemorrhage and infarction. Symtoms: headache with signs of meningealirritation.

Presentation and Diagnosis : 

Presentation and Diagnosis The clinical manifestations of hypopituitarism depend on which hormones are lost and the extent of the hormone deficiency. GH (growth disorders), GFH and LH (menstrual disorders and infertillity), TSH (hypothyroidism)

Biochemical diagnosis : 

Biochemical diagnosis Is made by demostrating low levels of trophic hormones in the setting of low target hormone levels.

Treatment : 

Treatment Hormone replacement therapy, including glucocorticoids, thyroid hormone, sex steroids, growth hormone and vasopressin, is usually free of complications. Glucocorticoid replacement require careful dose adjustments during stressful events.

Pituitary Masses : 

Pituitary Masses

Slide 26: 

Pituitary Tumors are the most common cause of pituitary hormone hypersecretion and hyposecretion syndromes in adults.

Clasification of pituitary adenomas. : 

Clasification of pituitary adenomas.

Genetic Syndromes Associated with PituitaryTumors : 

Genetic Syndromes Associated with PituitaryTumors Multiple endocrine neoplasia Carney syndrome McCune-Albright syndrome Familial acromegaly

Other Sellar Masses : 

Other Sellar Masses Craniopharyngiomas Sella Chordomas Meningiomas Histiocytosis X Pituitary metastases Hyphotalamic hamartomas and gangliocytomas

GH Hypersecretion : 

GH Hypersecretion Is usually the result of somatotrope adenomas but is also rarely caused by extrapituitary.

Presentation and Diagnosis : 

Presentation and Diagnosis Manifestations of GH hypersecretion are indolentand often are not clinically diagnosed.

Slide 33: 

Acral bony overgrowth results in frontal bossing, increased hand and foot size, mandibular enlargement prognathism, and widened space betwen the lower incisor teeth.

Slide 34: 

Acromegaly

Slide 35: 

In children and adolescents, initiation of GH secretion prior to epiphyseal long bone closure is associated with the development of pituitary gigantism.

Clinical features : 

Clinical features Increased heel pad thickness, shoe or glove size, ring tightening, and a large fleshy nose. Hyperhidrosis, deep sounding voice, oily skin, arthropathy, kyphosis, carpal tunnel syndromeproximal muscle weakness and skin tags. Generalized visceromegaly occurs, including cardiomegaly, and macroglossia.

Slide 37: 

Acromegaly/gigantism

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