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Cell Structure & Function:

Cell Structure & Function

Cell Theory:

Cell Theory All living things are made up of cells. Cells are the smallest working units of all living things. All cells come from preexisting cells through cell division.

Definition of Cell:

Definition of Cell A cell is the smallest unit that is capable of performing life functions.

Examples of Cells:

Examples of Cells Amoeba Proteus Plant Stem Red Blood Cell Nerve Cell Bacteria

Two Types of Cells:

Two Types of Cells Prokaryotic Eukaryotic


Prokaryotic Do not have structures surrounded by membranes Few internal structures One-celled organisms, Bacteria


Eukaryotic Contain organelles surrounded by membranes Most living organisms Plant Animal

“Typical” Animal Cell:

“Typical” Animal Cell

“Typical” Plant Cell:

“Typical” Plant Cell

Cell Parts:

Cell Parts Organelles

Surrounding the Cell:

Surrounding the Cell

Cell Membrane:

Cell Membrane Outer membrane of cell that controls movement in and out of the cell Double layer

Cell Wall:

Cell Wall Most commonly found in plant cells & bacteria Supports & protects cells

Inside the Cell:

Inside the Cell

Nucleus :

Nucleus Directs cell activities Separated from cytoplasm by nuclear membrane Contains genetic material - DNA

Nuclear Membrane:

Nuclear Membrane Surrounds nucleus Made of two layers Openings allow material to enter and leave nucleus


Chromosomes In nucleus Made of DNA Contain instructions for traits & characteristics


Nucleolus Inside nucleus Contains RNA to build proteins


Cytoplasm Gel-like mixture Surrounded by cell membrane Contains hereditary material

Endoplasmic Reticulum:

Endoplasmic Reticulum Moves materials around in cell Smooth type: lacks ribosomes Rough type (pictured): ribosomes embedded in surface


Ribosomes Each cell contains thousands Make proteins Found on ribosomes & floating throughout the cell


Mitochondria Produces energy through chemical reactions – breaking down fats & carbohydrates Controls level of water and other materials in cell Recycles and decomposes proteins, fats, and carbohydrates

Golgi Bodies:

Golgi Bodies Protein 'packaging plant' Move materials within the cell Move materials out of the cell


Lysosome Digestive 'plant' for proteins, fats, and carbohydrates Transports undigested material to cell membrane for removal Cell breaks down if lysosome explodes


Vacuoles Membrane-bound sacs for storage, digestion, and waste removal Contains water solution Help plants maintain shape


Chloroplast Usually found in plant cells Contains green chlorophyll Where photosynthesis takes place

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