afghanistan short

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Ghaznavid Empire: 963-1049 CE:

Ghaznavid Empire: 963-1049 CE Sultan Mahmud encouraged mass conversions to Islam Extensive building program

Timurid Dynasty:

Timurid Dynasty Turko-Mongol Descent Cultural renaissance Dynasty ended 1507 CE: Afghanistan divided between Indian Moghul empire and Persian Safavid empire till 18 th c.

Afghan Nation:

Afghan Nation Ahmed Shah: “Father of the Nation” Chosen leader by tribes in Afghanistan Mid 1700s His Dynasty and a sub-tribe ruled until 1978

Slide4:

Arabs introduce the region to Islam, a religion that will eventually become dominant Ahmad Shah Durrani begins his rule consolidating and enlarging Afghanistan while also governing much of India. But peace will be the exception over the next 100 years, as local leaders fend off Persian and Sikh invasions and fight amongst themselves The Islamic era begins with the Ghaznavid Dynasty, founded by Mongol-Turks and giving rise to Afghanistan’s emerging role politically and culturally in Islamic civilization Two Buddha Statues are carved out of sandstone cliff face in the Bamiyan Valley of Bactria Genghis Khan and his Mongol Army, successfully invade Afghanistan in their epic and bloody march westward. The “White Huns” invade the region, wiping out much of their Buddhist culture and many urban and town center. Afghanistan ruled by Moguls and Persian Safavids Macedonian-born Alexander the Great Conquers Persia and Afghanistan. Greek rule continues in much of the area during the next two centuries, although unrest and revolts are common.

“Graveyard of Empires”:

“Graveyard of Empires”

Western Invasion:

Western Invasion Great Britain & Russia fought over Afghanistan as far back as the 18 th & 19 th Centuries Political and military situation in 1840/1841 A growing Islamist Insurgency Overstretched foreign troops Cultural clashes as occupiers behaved in ways that offended local sensibilities A ruler who needed foreign support Increasing tensions between the occupier and ruler Growing conflict between tribal elders and ruler

King Mohammad Zahir:

King Mohammad Zahir 1964: established new Constitution with democratic reforms Introducing free elections, a parliament, civil rights, women’s rights, and a universal suffrage 1978: Coup d'état by People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (Communist Government) Socialist reforms implemented

King Mohammad Zahir:

King Mohammad Zahir 1978 while in Italy for operation Zahir cousin and former Prime Minister Mohammad Daoud Khan staged a coup d’etat and established a Communist Government Zahir abdicated rather than risk a Civil War Zahir would return to Afghanistan 2002 after the Soviet-Afghanistan war and after the fall of the Taliban

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