Between The Wars Russia

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Between The Wars:

Between The Wars 1917-1938

Episode IV: A New Ideology :

Episode IV: A New Ideology 1848: Karl Marx and Fredric Engels publish the Communist Manifesto Marxism completely reverses the concept of property ownership Proletariat v. Bourgeoisie “Underdog” ideology gains support in Germany and spreads during global depression



Vladimir Lenin:

Vladimir Lenin Russian-born citizen Influenced heavily by the Communist Manifesto Wants to employ Marxism in Russia Joins Bolshevik Party and quickly becomes leader

The February Revolution:

The February Revolution Mar. 8, 1917: workers of Petrograd, Russia unite to protest working conditions Demand improved working conditions and Russia’s removal from WWI Czar Nicholas II abdicates the throne

The October Revolution:

The October Revolution Nov. 7, 1917: Bolshevik party seizes control of Petrograd Lenin takes his place as leader of the Bolshevik party His first action: pull Russia out of WWI

Rise of the Proletariat :

Rise of the Proletariat Under the leadership of Lenin the working class gains influence Lenin outlaws all other political parties Lenin seeks to reform Russia from capitalist to communist Side-bar: Communism is NOT Marxism

Bolshevik Reform:

Bolshevik Reform The Bolshevik Party renames Russia to Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, USSR (CCCP) or Soviet Union The Bolshevik Party renames itself t he Communist Party Lenin introduces New Economic Policy ( NEP )


“Modern industry has converted the little workshop of the patriarchal master into the great factory of the industrial capitalist. Masses of laborers, crowded into the factory, are organized like soldiers. As privates of the industrial army they are placed under the command of a perfect hierarchy of officers and sergeants. Not only are they slaves of the bourgeois class, and of the bourgeois State; they are daily and hourly enslaved by the machine, by the over looker, and, above all, by the individual bourgeois manufacturer himself. The more openly this despotism proclaims gain to be its end and aim, the more petty, the more hateful and the more embittering it is.” Marx and Engels, The Communist Manifesto, pgs. 164-165

New Economic Policy:

New Economic Policy Coexistence of private and public sectors Increased free trade opportunities to build industrial base Primary reforms came in agriculture Removal of grain requisition Changed to tax Incentivized labor to produce more Allowed workers to move out of their social class

Internal Conflict:

Internal Conflict Lenin’s new office presents many challenges: Russian Civil War (The Red Army v. The White Army) Murder of the Romanov Family The Great Famine The stress from the events deteriorates Lenin’s health Anastasia

The Death of Lenin:

The Death of Lenin Vladimir Lenin dies Jan. 21, 1924 His funeral is Jan. 23, still on display today Two possible replacements Joseph Stalin or Leon Trotsky Lenin pushes for Trotsky


Death is the solution to all problems. No man - no problem

Joseph “The Man of Steel” Stalin:

Joseph “The Man of Steel” Stalin Russian born Like Lenin, is heavily influenced by The Communist Manifesto Quickly gains power with in the Bolshevik Party Uses manipulation Does not trust most of his advisers Very egotistical

A State Run by Stalin:

A State Run by Stalin Once in control, Stalin creates a “ Cult of Personality ” Increases use of the NKVD, instilling fear of the State Creates a Totalitarian government Totalitarianism: absolute control of the state

Power Grab:

Power Grab Through the use of the secret police, NKVD , Stalin purges his opposition N arodnyy K omissariat V nutrennikh D el People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs Fearing Stalin’s power, Trotsky flees to Mexico Begins Five Year Plan to improve the USSR

The Five Year Plan:

The Five Year Plan All land to be “owned” by the Collective Places emphasis on developing factories Outlaws religion Sends noncompliant to the Gulag Continues purging political opposition

Stalin Biography:

Stalin Biography 18:07 -25:42


Holodomor Extermination by hunger A great famine swept through the CCCP killing roughly 3.3 million The main region affected is the Ukraine The people were the targets of Stalin’s racial purging Nina Karpenko


1938 Stalin makes the Soviet Union a “great nation” Hitler’s Germany is a threat to Stalin’s Soviet Union Each side waits for the other’s first move

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