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very nice job..

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Development of Questionnaire :

Development of Questionnaire By-NEHA GIRAMKAR 4/3/2013 1

What is a Questionnaire?:

What is a Questionnaire? A questionnaire is the vehicle used to pose the questions that the researcher wants respondents to answer. 4/3/2013 14- 2


POINT OF CLARIFICATION Terms “survey” and “questionnaire” are often used interchangeably “ Survey ” refers to a descriptive research technique or methodology (also includes interviews, and focus groups) “ Questionnaire ” refers to a paper and pencil instrument through which information is obtained For the purposes of outcomes assessment, questionnaires are frequently developed to survey a population 4/3/2013 14- 3

When to use a Questionnaire:

When to use a Questionnaire When resources and money are limited. A Questionnaire can be quite inexpensive to administer. Although preparation may be costly, any data collection scheme will have similar preparation expenses. The administration cost per person of a questionnaire can be as low as postage and a few photocopies. Time is also an important resource that questionnaires can maximize. When it is necessary to protect the privacy of the participants. Questionnaires are easy to administer confidentially. Often confidentiality is the necessary to ensure participants will respond honestly if at all. Examples of such cases would include studies that need to ask embarrassing questions about private or personal behavior. When corroborating other findings. In studies that have resources to pursue other data collection strategies, questionnaires can be a useful confirmation tools. More costly schemes may turn up interesting trends, but occasionally there will not be resources to run these other tests on large enough participant groups to make the results statistically significant. A follow-up large scale questionnaire may be necessary to corroborate these earlier results. 4/3/2013 14- 4

Questionnaire - Advantages:

Questionnaire - Advantages Broad coverage (local, national, international) Frank and anonymous answers Economical for large population Less Time consuming Quantitative data (easy to analyze) Filling at a convenient time Easy to respond (fixed responses) Good for sensitive & ego-related Qs. Original hard-to-obtain data 4/3/2013 14- 5

Questionnaire - Disadvantages:

Questionnaire - Disadvantages No clarification for ambiguous questions Inadequate motivation to respond Poorly worded or direct questions Unattractive style and format Low response rate Inaccurate responses – no verification Limited fixed responses Cannot uncover causes or relationships for attitudes, beliefs, actions 4/3/2013 14- 6

Nine steps in questionnaire development . . . :

Nine steps in questionnaire development . . . 1. Decide the information required. 2. Define the target respondents. 3. Choose the method of reaching your target respondents. 4. Decide on question content. 5. Develop the question wording. 6. Put questions into a meaningful order and format. 7. Check the length of the questionnaire. 8. Pre-test the questionnaire. 9. Develop the final survey form. 4/3/2013 14- 7

How wording affects answers:

How wording affects answers Did you see… A broken headlight? The broken headlight? Which generates more agreement? 4/3/2013 14- 8

Why Avoid These Words?:

Why Avoid These Words? These words: all, any, anybody, best, ever, every, never , etc. are all EXTREME ABSOLUTES… They place respondents in a situation where they must either fully agree or they must completely disagree with the extreme position in the question. Do you always observe traffic signs? Would you say all cats have four legs? 4/3/2013 14- 9

Four “Do Not’s” of Questionnaire Wording:

Four “Do Not’s” of Questionnaire Wording The question should not “lead” the respondent to a particular answer. “Don’t you see any problem with using credit cards for online purchases?” The question should not have “loaded” wording or phrasing. Use universal beliefs…Since our Founding Fathers gave us the right to bear arms… 4/3/2013 14- 10

Four “Do Not’s” of Questionnaire Wording:

Four “Do Not’s” of Questionnaire Wording The question should not be “double-barreled.” The question should not use words that overstate the condition…do not use “dramatics.” “Would you buy sunglasses that protect your eyes from harmful ultraviolent rays that cause blindness?” 4/3/2013 14- 11

PowerPoint Presentation:

Questionnaire Types Questionnaires can be: Unstructured/semi-structured – qualitative Structured - quantitative list all questions put in logical sequence specify precise wording to be used provide pre defined categories for recording the replies Main aim is that questions are standardised so individual responses can be counted up and compared 4/3/2013 14- 12

Types of Questions Illustrated:

Types of Questions Illustrated Pre-coded, single-choice questions Open-ended questions Presence-absence questions Rank-ordering questions Likert-type questions Index development 4/3/2013 14- 13

Types: Pre-Coded, Single-Choice:

Types: Pre-Coded, Single-Choice Pre-coded, single-choice questions ask respondents to indicate which one category applies Answers are pre-coded for easy data entry If not all options can be listed, include “Other” with a space to indicate what the “Other” category implies “Please specify”__________ Categories should be mutually-exclusive i.e., no categories overlap with one another These are also called as closed ended question 4/3/2013 14- 14

Pre-Coded, Single-Choice: Example:

Pre-Coded, Single-Choice: Example 1.What year are you in? Freshman 1  Sophomore 2  J unior 3  Senior 4  4/3/2013 14- 15 2.What toping do u like on dessert ? nuts 1  chocolate 2  jelly 3  sprinkles 4 

Pre-Coded, Single-Choice: Example:

Pre-Coded, Single-Choice: Example 4/3/2013 14- 16 A typical question: 3.Marital status: 1) Single (never married) 2) Divorced 3) Married 4) Separated 5) Widowed *Closed-ended questions may “ lead ” the respondent in an inappropriate direction

Types: Open-Ended Questions:

Types: Open-Ended Questions Open-ended questions do not have pre-set answers. Excellent way to explore new areas Use open-ended questions when: Too many response categories (year of birth) You don’t wish to impose categories on respondents Qualitative – source of quotations Determining appropriate categorization 4/3/2013 14- 17

Open-Ended: Example:

Open-Ended: Example 1. What is/was your father’s occupation (e.g., supervisor, railway machine shop … supervises work of about 25 people)? Job ________________________________________ Brief Job Description __________________________ ___________________________________________ 2. What is the one thing you would like to see changed at the university? ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ 4/3/2013 14- 18

Open-Ended: Caution:

Open-Ended: Caution Minimize the number of open-ended questions because they: Are time-consuming to code May generate responses that are inconsistent Are more likely to be left blank May decrease response rate Takes more time to complete the questionnaire 4/3/2013 14- 19

Types: Presence-Absence Questions:

Types: Presence-Absence Questions Presence-absence questions ask respondents to check off which items in a list do or do not apply to them Less commonly used than other types of questions This is also known as rating question type 4/3/2013 14- 20

Presence-Absence: Example:

Presence-Absence: Example 1. Have you ever had contact with a physically handicapped person in any of these groups? (Circle to indicate “yes” or “no” for each group) Yes No Community ----------- 1 0 Family ----------------- 1 0 Relatives -------------- 1 0 Elementary school -- 1 0 High school ----------- 1 0 University class ------ 1 0 As a co-worker ------- 1 0 4/3/2013 14- 21

Presence-Absence: Example:

Presence-Absence: Example 2. Do you currently have a life insurance policy? Circle: Yes No 4/3/2013 14- 22

Types: Rank-Ordering Questions:

Types: Rank-Ordering Questions Rank-order questions ask respondents to indicate an ordering of response items, usually from most preferred to least preferred Must be done with great care Ask for only three most important items Must make instructions explicit These types of questions should be avoided or minimized because they take time 4/3/2013 14- 23

Rank-Ordering Questions: Example:

Rank-Ordering Questions: Example 1. Rank-order the three most important characteristics you want in the job you make your life’s work. (Place a 1 beside the most important one; a 2 beside the second most important one; and a 3 beside the next most important one.) High salary.…………. ____ Security.…………….. ____ Continued interest….. ____ Power……………….. ____ Prestige……………… ____ Excitement………….. ____ 4/3/2013 14- 24

Rank-Ordering Questions: Example:

Rank-Ordering Questions: Example 2.What sources do you prefer for writing term reports? Please rank them according to …… (1= most preferred;7= least preferred) --- Books --- Encyclopaedia --- Friends --- Internet --- Journals --- Lecture notes --- Personal collection 4/3/2013 14- 25

Types: Likert-Type Questions:

Types: Likert-Type Questions Likert-type questions ask respondents to indicate how much they agree or disagree with a statement Response options originally included: strongly disagree, disagree, are undecided or neutral, agree, strongly agree Today often used with numbered response options 4/3/2013 14- 26

Likert-Type Questions: Example:

Likert-Type Questions: Example In the following, circle a number to indicate the extent to which you agree or disagree with each statement: 1. I believe capital punishment represents the most effective deterrent to murder. Strongly disagree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Strongly agree 2. I believe a murderer can be rehabilitated to become a responsible , functioning member of society. Strongly disagree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Strongly agree 3 . I believe a life sentence is a satisfactory penalty for murder. Strongly disagree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Strongly agree 4/3/2013 14- 27

Four Format Styles :

Four Format Styles 1. Babbie Format Style for Fixed-Choice Responses: . Have you ever smoked marijuana? [ ] Yes [ ] No 2. Dillman Format Style for Fixed-Choice Responses: Your Sex (Circle number of your answer) 1 MALE 2 FEMALE . 4/3/2013 14- 28

Four Format Styles :

Four Format Styles 3 . Krahn Format Style for Fixed-Choice Responses: 1. In the past year, has any member of your immediate family (not counting yourself) been unemployed (out of work and not looking for work)? No 1 Yes 2 Jackson Format Style for Fixed-Choice Responses:1. What year are you in? Freshman ------------- 1  Sophomore ----------- 2  Junior ------------------ 3  Senior ----------------- 4  4/3/2013 14- 29

Branching Question::

Branching Question: 4/3/2013 14- 30

Presentation of Questionnaire:

Presentation of Questionnaire Have a distinctive look E.g., coloured paper, graphics for questions is appealing Can increase the appeal of doing the questionnaire Don’t squeeze too much onto one page Crowding questions on a page can make the questionnaire appear too long 4/3/2013 14- 31