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“POLICY AND CHALLENGES ON ENVIRONMENT IN MONGOLIA – GEF COOPERATION” By J. Enkhsaikhan GEF Political Focal Point for Mongolia GEF Constituency Meeting 4-5 April 2007, Hu Han Thailand

Ecological Features of Mongolia : 

Ecological Features of Mongolia Mongolia has a unique and rich natural ecosystems As Mongolia undergoes a massive socio-economic transformation, threats to these natural areas, flora, and fauna are rapidly mounting. All natural zones such as high mountains, valleys between the mountain ranges, the wide steppe, Gobi desert and semi-desert zones are interconnected. Ecologically, Mongolia occupies a critical and fragile transition zone in Central Asia, where the Siberian taiga forest, the Central Asian steppe, the high Altai mountains and the Gobi desert converge. Socio-economic development of the country is much dependent on natural resources

Basic environmental challenges : 

Basic environmental challenges Mongolia’s environment is relatively unspoilt. However, rapid transition since 1990 accelerated risks of damage. Many areas of concern are emerging: Land Degradation Desertification (Climate Change, Dust and Sand Storms) Deforestation Decline of Water Resources Loss of Biodiversity Urban Air Pollution Solid Waste Frequent Natural Disasters

Legislative Framework : 

Basic law is “Law on Environmental Protection” that includes 3 main principles: prevention of adverse impacts creation of favourable environmental conditions for human life, labour and recreation ensuring the development of sustainable economy ( in total, over 30 environmental laws, programs, policy papers and regulations ) International cooperation (treaties/agreements) Legislative Framework

GEF and Mongolia’s policy coordination : 

GEF and Mongolia’s policy coordination Land Restoration of Mining Sites Reforestation and Desertification Prevention Reduction of Environmental Pollution Water Use Management Expansion of Protected Areas Network and Biodiversity Conservation

Key players : 

Key players State Great Hural (parliament) Government of Mongolia National committees and commissions Environmental treaty bodies, GEF Ministries and agencies Local government / agencies Private sector / local industries Non-governmental organizations

Results and achievements:( case study on desertification ) : 

Results and achievements:( case study on desertification ) Programs to combat desertification, including through UNCCD GEF’s designtaion of a separate focal area on land degradation Contribution to capacity building, implementation of innovative, sustainable land management & implement programs

Challenges and constraints (1) : 

Challenges and constraints (1) Limitation of resources vs. expanding desertification Lack of clear holistic approach to environment management at national level Weak institutional capacity and lack of full understanding of GEF policies and procedures Weak innovative and efficient programmatic approach that affects cost-effectiveness GEF operations

Challenges and constraints (2) : 

Challenges and constraints (2) Limited capacity at the lower levels of government Reconciling conflict of interests and priorities of different stakeholders Linking the project to ongoing or planned activities

Lessons learned : 

Lessons learned Projects need to be nationally driven (formulation, planning & implementation) Consultation and participation of the major stakeholders Capacity to implement programs in a cross-sectoral, synergistic and integrated manner Focus on impact-oriented rather than process-oriented approach Need for visible impacts on the ground and thus on livelihoods of communities

Recommendations : 

Recommendations More fully incorporate national development program and global environment benefits Strengthen understanding and communication among country actors/stakeholder & with GEF Assist in capacity building, promote country support programs

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