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DEEP ECOLOGY Lecture by: Dr. Pranav Pandya Director, Brahmavarchas Shodh Sansthan Shantikunj Hardwar Himalayas

Sustainable Ecological development and Human Values :

Sustainable Ecological development and Human Values We’ll discuss - Global problems today in this scientific world Talk about one big earth system - our eco- system Our living planet - GAIA Named after Greek Earth Goddess . Concepts of Deep Ecology Concept of sustainability in today’s modern world Ethics of development - authoritarian and humanistic The paradigm shift - Greening of self Consciousness,Spirituality,Upanishdic teachings and Yogic philosophy in the core of value based global mgmt.

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“A sustainable society is one that satisfies its needs without diminishing the prospects of future generation.” --- Lester Brown (Worldwatch Institute) Washington

We are facing today Crisis of Perception:

We are facing today Crisis of Perception Most of us subscribe to the concept of an outdated worldview, a perception of reality inadequate for dealing with our overpopulated globally interconnected world. The recognition that a profound change of perception and thinking is needed if we are to survive has not yet reached most of our corporate leaders , administrators and professors of universities.


Values It Says - Deep Ecology is based on ecocentric (earth centered) values. All living beings are members of ecological communities bound together in a network of interdependencies. (vasudhaiva kutumbakam )

In contrast :

In contrast Science Today is not life furthering and life preserving but Life Destroying - with Physicists are designing weapon systems threatening to wipe out life on planet. Chemists are contaminating the global environment. Biologists are releasing new and unknown types of micro organisms without knowing results. Psychologists and Others are torturing animals in the name of scientific progress. Policy makers are planning everything unethically with no emphasis on ecoethics.

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Ages of life Billion years ago Stages of evolution M icrocosmic (evolution of 3.5 First bacterial cells fermentation Micro-Organisms) photosynthesis, DNA repair. 2.8 Tectonic plates formation. 2.5 Bacteria fully extended. 2.2 First nucleated cells 2.0 Oxygen build up inAtmosphere 1.8 Oxygen breathing 1.5 Earth surface and atmosphere established

Ages of life Billion years ago Stages of evolution:

Ages of life Billion years ago Stages of evolution Macrocosm 1.2 locomotion (evolution of 1.0 sexual reproduction visible life forms) 0.8 mitochondria 0.7 early animals 0.6 shells and skletons 0.5 early plants 0.4 land animals 0.3 dinosaurs 0.2 mammals 0.1 flowering plants,- first primates.

The Paradigm Shift:

The Paradigm Shift PARADIGMS are defined as a constellation of achievements, concepts, values and techniques etc. If we apply this definition to cultural transformation today - it is “ A constellation of concepts, values, perceptions and practices shared by a community, which forms a particular vision of reality that is the basis of the way the communities organize themselves” --- Fritof Capra

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Holistic and Ecological world view Holistic sees the world as an integrated whole. Ecological recognizes the fundamental inter-dependence of all phenomenon and views Individual and societies as all embedded in (and ultimately dependent on) the cyclical process of nature

Deep Ecology:

Deep Ecology This is now a global grassroots movement Was founded by Norwegian philosopher Arne Naess in Early 1970s In his view shallow ecology is anthropocentric or human centered Deep ecology sees the world as a network of phenomena that are fundamentally interconnected and interdependent IT RECOGNISES THE INTRINSIC VALUE OF ALL LIVING BEINGS AND VIEWS HUMANS AS JUST ONE PARTICULAR STRAND IN THE WEB OF LIFE.

Deep Ecology:

Deep Ecology Is in fact spiritual or religious awareness Emerging new vision of reality based on deep ecological awareness is consistent with so called parennial philosophy of spiritual traditions - Eastern mysticism, Vedanta, Buddhism, Christian mysticism or cosmology underlying native American traditions. “ The essence of deep ecology is to ask deeper questions ” -- Arne Naess


Values Our “ self” should be widened and deepened so that protection of free nature is felt and conceived as protection of ourselves .... ( Arne Naess ) ..... just as we need no morals to make us breathe ... (so) if our “self” in the wide sense embraces another being, we need no moral exhortation to show care.


The two tendencies - Self assertive and Integrative are essential aspects of all living system. Neither is intrinsically good or bad. What is good or healthy is a - Dynamic Balance w hat is bad or unhealthy is a- Imbalance or Over emphasis of one tendency and Neglect of other Values (contd..) Western industrial culture or Corporate culture anywhere in the world have overemphasized the Self Assertive and neglected the Integrative tendencies. More so self assertive values are associated with Men in our society.

Shift of Thinking and Values:

Shift of Thinking and Values THINKING VALUES SELF INTEGRATIVE SELF INTEGRATIVE ASSERTIVE ASSERTIVE Rational Intuitive Expansion Conservation Analytical Synthetic Competition Cooperation Reductionistic Holistic Quantity Quality Linear Nonlinear Domination Partnership (Share holdership)

Deep Social and Feministic Ecology:

Deep Social and Feministic Ecology Deep Ecology - Its awareness provides the ideal philosophy and spiritual basis for an ecofriendly life style and for environmental activism. Social Ecology - Recognizes fundamentally anti-ecological nature of many of our social and economical structure. They say that problem are rooted in. Dominator system of social organization - patriarchy imperialism, capitalism and racism. these are exploitative and antiecological factors in eyes of Raine Eisler.

Feministic ecology or Ecofeminism:

Feministic ecology or Ecofeminism Addresses the basic dynamics of social domination within the context of patriarchy. Ecofeminists see the patriarchal domination of women by men as the prototype of all domination's and exploitation in hierarchical, militaristic, capitalistic and industrialists forms. They say that exploitation of nature has gone hand in hand with that of women.

Ecology and Psychology:

Ecology and Psychology Link between two has been established by the concept of ecological self. “ Greening of self ” - Joanna Macy “ Trans Personal Ecology” - Warwick Fox “ Eco-psychology ” - Theodore Roszak.


THE LOGIC OF MIND CYBERNETICS Norbert Wiener invented Cybernetics from the word Kybernetes (“Steersman”) a Greek term, defining it as a Science of Control and Communication in the animal and machine. Cyberneticists were neither Biologists nor Ecologists - They were mathematicians, neuroscientists, social scientists and engineers. It became and still is a powerful intellectual movement. PSYCHO- CYBERNETICS IS LATEST DEVELOPMENT

Paradigm Shift:

Paradigm Shift A shift in Social Organizations from Hierarchies Networks to (Central Metaphor of Ecology) This is need of time today.

New concepts :

New concepts Philosophy is like a tree DESCARTES TODAY SHIFT Root Metaphysics Metaphysics and Spirituality Trunk Physics Life Science Branches Eco-Psychology All other or Deep Ecology Sciences According to CAPRA

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“Modern Scientists are learning so much about so little that they’ll eventually know everything about nothing.” - James Lovelock ( 1988 ) “The Ages of Gaia-A biography of our living earth” has been written by James Lovelock. He has written in detail about how the earth came by its unique climate, chemistry & atmosphere.

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James Lovelock calls the living planet GAIA He says- Scientists should start thinking of Ecology, Geology & Chemistry, just as Physicians think of Breathing and Digestion.


GAIA James Lovelock through his illuminating insight has led to formulate a model, most comprehensive expression of Self Organization . The idea that the planet Earth as a whole is a living vibrant, self organizing system.

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James Lovelock in fact recognized the earth’s atmosphere as an OPEN SYSTEM, far from equilibrium, characterized by a constant flow of energy and matter, the very hallmark of life. ENERGY MATTER

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Lovelock & Margulis Challenged the conventional wisdom and provided an altenative theory….. They say Earth is not a dead planet made of inanimate Rocks, Ocean and atmosphere merely inhabited by life. “ It is a real system comprising of life and all of its environment tightly coupled, so as to form a Self regulating Entity.”

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This theory has brought together Geology Micro biology Other disciplines Atmos- pheric Chemistry Together With DEEP ECOLOGY

Two Dimensions of Sustainability:

Two Dimensions of Sustainability SED: S ustainable E conomical D evelopment ( Sust. growth of per capital real income over time.) The traditional economical growth objective. SURE : S ustainable U se of R esources and E nvironment. ( Rate of use of environment that does not deplete its capital value.)

Deep Ecology:

Deep Ecology This is now a global grassroot movement Was founded by Norwegian philosopher Arne Naess in Early 1970s In his view shallow ecology is anthropocentric or human centred Deep ecology sees the world as a network of phenomena that are fundamentally interconnected and interdependent IT RECOGNISES THE INTRINSIC VALUE OF ALL LIVING BEINGS AND VIEWS HUMANS AS JUST ONE PARTICULAR STRAND IN THE WEB OF LIFE.

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