Tomato & Melon Grafting

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Grafting of Vegetables:

Grafting of Vegetables Educational programs of the Kentucky Cooperative Extension Service serve all people regardless of race, color, age, sex, religion, disability, or national origin . Disabilities accommodated with prior notification

Grafting is a propagation method where the tissue of two plants are fused together. The bottom part of the plant that contributes roots and support is called the rootstock. The upper part contributing leaves, flowers, fruits and stems, is called the scion. :

Grafting is a propagation method where the tissue of two plants are fused together. The bottom part of the plant that contributes roots and support is called the rootstock . The upper part contributing leaves, flowers, fruits and stems, is called the scion . Grafting Vegetable Plants What is it?

Grafting Vegetable Plants History :

Grafting Vegetable Plants History Grafting has been used in horticultural industry for woody species such as apples and grapes for centuries Vegetables were first grafted in early 1900s to diminish fusarium wilt on watermelons The production of grafted vegetables in Asia is widespread. In Japan almost 95 % of the watermelons, oriental melons, cucumbers, tomato and eggplant crops are grafted before being transplanted to the field or greenhouse Grafting vegetables in the US is largely restricted to high input hydroponic production. Information related to production of grafted vegetables and behavior of rootstocks under field conditions is very limited Grafting in horticultural plants is increasing as a means to improve plant growth, control disease, impart tolerance to temperature and salt stress, and increase nutrient uptake

Grafting Vegetable Plants Benefits:

Grafting Vegetable Plants Benefits Disease resistance Soilborne fungal, bacterial, viral, nematode Stress tolerance Environmental stressors, salt, excess moisture, soil temperatures, insect Increased productivity increase yield outside of disease and abiotic stressor plant vigor

Grafting Vegetable Plants Step-by-Step:

Grafting Vegetable Plants Step-by-Step choose scion and rootstock construct healing chamber plant seed choose best time to graft make the grafts move grafts to healing chamber acclimate the grafts to normal conditions

Grafting Vegetable Plants Selecting a Rootstock:

Grafting Vegetable Plants Selecting a Rootstock

Grafting Vegetable Plants Selecting a Rootstock:

Grafting Vegetable Plants Selecting a Rootstock Rootstock selection is probably the single most important step in grafting for disease resistance

Grafting Vegetable Plants Construct Healing Chamber:

Grafting Vegetable Plants Construct Healing Chamber Grafts must receive 80-95% humidity Minimal direct sunlight Fluorescent lights Shade cloth, black plastic Temperature range of 70-80 F indoors such as heated garage

Grafting Vegetable Plants Plant Seed:

Grafting Vegetable Plants Plant Seed Sow two weeks before typical; this allows for one week healing time inside chamber and a week to re-acclimate in greenhouse Rootstock and scion stems are same diameter Stagger to offset germination variables rootstock varieties take 2-5 days longer to germinate

Grafting Vegetable Plants Best Time to Graft:

Grafting Vegetable Plants Best Time to Graft When seedlings have 2-4 true leaves Stems are 1.5-2 millimeters Early morning or just after dark when water stress is low Should be done indoors or under shade device

Grafting Vegetable Plants Make the Graft:

Grafting Vegetable Plants Make the Graft Sanitation anti-microbial soap, latex gloves and sterile tools Graft at 45-degree angle Use rubber or silicon clip Locate the graft above the cotyledon to prevent adventitious roots

Grafting Vegetable Plants Healing Time:

Grafting Vegetable Plants Healing Time Grafts should be left in the chamber for first 2-4 days with no absolutely no light and high humidity Inspect the grafts after placing in chamber to be sure contact remains No watering over the top, bottom water Open chamber twice a day to replenish carbon dioxide for the grafts After 4 days or when grafts reach normal turgor levels light can be slowly introduced and humidity lowered this about 2 days

Grafting Vegetable Plants :

Grafting Vegetable Plants

2008 Field Grafted Tomato Research:

2008 Field Grafted Tomato Research Organic Conventional Crista Maxifort Mr. Stripey Cherokee Purple Example of Treatment Set CPO CP/CP MS/CP CR/CP MX/CP

Black Plastic Mulch Organic vs. Conventional :

Black Plastic Mulch Organic vs. Conventional Duncan Grouping Mean Org/Con Test A 3.86 con size B 3.48 org size A 2.33 org grade B 2.13 con grade A .480 con wt B .411 org wt

Red Plastic Mulch Organic vs. Conventional :

Red Plastic Mulch Organic vs. Conventional Duncan Grouping Mean Org/Con Test A 3.91 con size A 3.91 org size A 2.17 org grade A 2.15 con grade A .500 con wt A .497 org wt

Plastic Mulch Conventional Red vs. Black:

Plastic Mulch Conventional Red vs. Black Duncan Grouping Mean Plastic Test A 3.91 red size A 3.86 black size A 2.15 red grade A 2.13 black grade A .500 red wt A .480 black wt

Plastic Mulch Organic Red vs. Black:

Plastic Mulch Organic Red vs. Black Duncan Grouping Mean Plastic Test A 3.92 red size B 3.48 black size A 2.18 red grade B 2.33 black grade A .497 red wt B .411 black wt

Fruit Evaluations Conventional Black Plastic :

Fruit Evaluations Conventional Black Plastic Size Trt Grade Trt Weight Trt 5.10 a MS/CP 1.39 f CR/MX .799 a MS/CP 4.85 ab CP/MX 1.50 fe CR/CR .757 a CP/MX 4.70 bc CP/CP 1.61 e CRO .662 b CP/CP 4.55 bcd CR/MX 1.66 e CR/CP .661 b CP/CR 4.48 ecd CP/CR 1.66 e CP/MS .609 bc CR/MX 4.35 efcd CR/CR 1.90 d MS/CP .592 bc CRO 4.31 efgd CPO 2.11 c CP/MX .576 bc CR/CR

Fruit Evaluations Organic Black Plastic :

Fruit Evaluations Organic Black Plastic Size Trt Grade Trt Weight Trt 4.77 a CPO 1.71 d CR/MX .673 a CPO 4.67 ab CP/CR 1.76 d CR/CR .665 a CP/MS 4.50 ab CP/CP 1.85 d CR/CP .659 a CP/CR 4.34 ab CP/MX 1.89 d CRO .609 ab CRO 4.30 ab CP/MS 2.19 c MS/MX .604 ab CP/CP 4.25 b CRO 2.20 c CP/MX .586 ab CR/MX 4.25 b CR/MX 2.22 c CPO .583 ab CR/CP

Fruit Evaluations Conventional Red Plastic :

Fruit Evaluations Conventional Red Plastic Size Trt Grade Trt Weight Trt 4.78 a CP/CR 1.47 e CR/MX .689 a CP/CR 4.44 ab CP/MX 1.61 ed CR/MS .643 ab CR/MX 4.41 ab CP/CP 1.69 d CR/CR .627 ab CP/MX 4.28 bc CP/MS 1.72 d CRO .606 ab MS/MS 4.27 bc CPO 2.06 c CR/CP .573 bc CPO 4.27 bc CR/MX 2.06 c MS/MX .569 bc CP/CP 4.13 bc MS/MS 2.13 c CP/MS .569 bc CR/CR

Fruit Evaluations Organic Red Plastic :

Fruit Evaluations Organic Red Plastic Size Trt Grade Trt Weight Trt 4.82 a CPO 1.70 c CR/CR .718 a CP/MX 4.67 ab CP/MX 1.75 c CR/MS .705 ab CPO 4.47 abc CP/MS 1.78 c CR/MX .617 abc CP/MS 4.43 abc CP/CP 1.79 c CR/CP .601 bc CR/CP 4.35 bc CR/MX 1.88 c CRO .596 bc CR/MX 4.29 bc CRO 2.14 b CP/MX .590 bcd CRO 4.29 bc CP/CR 2.16 b CPO .590 bcd CP/CP

Fusarium Results:

Fusarium Results Organic Conventional Treatments MSO 3/16 MS/MS 0/16 CP/MS 6/16 MX/MS 4/16 CR/MS 6/16 WKU Tomato Research Field Plot Plan Summer 2008 PLANT Row 1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8 R9 R10 R11 R12 R13 R14 R15 R16 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 20 1 11 6 6 16 19 3 8 14 10 15 6 16 7 2 10 19 4 13 7 7 18 17 4 9 11 6 11 10 17 9 1 6 18 5 15 9 10 20 18 5 10 15 7 12 8 18 8 3 8 17 3 14 8 8 17 20 1 6 13 9 14 9 20 6 4 7 16 2 12 10 9 19 16 2 7 12 8 13 7 15 10 5 9 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 15 20 6 14 17 9 6 17 14 18 2 6 16 3 4 13 14 14 17 8 12 19 10 10 20 12 19 3 9 18 5 2 15 12 13 18 10 11 20 7 8 16 11 16 1 8 20 2 1 11 15 12 19 9 10 16 6 7 18 13 17 4 10 17 1 5 14 13 11 16 7 13 18 8 9 16 15 20 5 7 19 4 3 12 11 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 10 13 5 19 3 18 12 13 16 4 15 19 13 9 11 9 1 9 11 4 18 1 19 13 15 19 1 11 18 14 8 12 10 4 8 12 2 20 4 17 11 11 20 2 12 17 12 7 15 6 5 7 15 3 17 5 16 15 12 18 3 13 16 11 6 14 8 3 6 14 1 16 2 20 14 14 17 5 14 20 15 5 13 7 2 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 5 6 20 1 14 2 3 8 3 8 17 1 3 11 16 18 19 4 7 18 3 13 3 1 9 4 6 19 5 4 13 18 20 16 3 10 19 5 15 4 5 6 1 7 20 2 1 14 20 16 17 2 8 17 2 12 1 2 7 2 9 18 4 2 12 17 19 18 1 9 16 4 11 5 4 10 5 10 16 3 5 15 19 17 20 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Red Red Red Red Black Black Black Black Black Black Black Black Red Red Red Red PLANT Row 1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8 R9 R10 R11 R12 R13 R14 R15 R16

Grafted Watermelon:

Grafted Watermelon

Grafted Watermelon:

Grafted Watermelon

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