Infertility in bovines,goat,ewe

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TOPIC : General aspects of infertility in bovines, sheep and goat and its economic importance

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Introduction: Infertility and Sterility are two different concepts. Sterility is the absolute inability to reproduce while infertility imply delayed or irregular reproduction or inability to conceive/Infertility is the diminished or absent capacity to produce viable offspring.

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Causes of Infertility: Functional Non Infectious Infectious Non Infectious It includes : Managemental causes Nutritional causes Hormonal causes

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Functional causes of infertility and Repeat breeding : Other causes of anestrus Repeat breeders Cystic ovaries and retained (persistent) corpora lutea.

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Anestrous: It is considered as a problem when cows are not seen in heat.

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Anestrous: Anestrous or failure to show signs of estrus are in most cases due to failure to detect estrous. In one study of cows reported to be in anestrous 90% were determined to be in estrous but not detected in estrous and only 10% were truly anestrous(no ovarian activity) Repeat Breeder: It is defined as cow that has been bred 3 or more times and does not pregnant

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Non Infectious Infertility : Managaemental causes: The conception rate of a herd should be estimated as the percentage of females becoming pregnant to the first service Proper managemental conditions ensure high conception rate and fertility in the herd. Conditions of overstocking, lack of spacious accommodation and proper hygiene predispose the stock to known and unknown infections.

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In assessment of herd infertility a detailed history should be maintained from the owner including : Size of the herd Name of the breed Management practices Feeding standards Data on all calvings,Service data Reproductive disorders- abortions, retained placenta,abnormal discharges, infertility treatments.

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Nutritional Infertility: Post partum nutrition is most important for infertility.If TDN is low bot prepartum and postpartum ,fertility suffers. Vit A had no effect on fertility but may cause irregular cycles Vit E deficiency may cause reproductive problems. If BUN greater than 20 mg/dl then low conception rates occur.

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True anestrous(lack of ovarian activity) may be caused by anemia caused by anaplasmosis, deficiency of iron, copper, cobalt or selenium Impaired reproduction also found in phosphorus deficiency, high production. Feeding pre-partum is the best way to assure early return to cyclicity in cows.

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Hormonal causes: Silent Heat: Silent Heat is generally not a problem and usually is manifested by unobserved heats by farmers. However first postpartum heat is normally silent because there are no estrogen receptors. This is due to result of low postpartum progesterone.

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Delayed ovulation: If a cow ovulates more than 18 hours after end of heat then it is said to be delayed ovulation. This may be diagnosed by palpation and can be treated with GnRH. Cystic Ovarian disease: It is caused by lack of release of LH surge resulting in no ovulation. There are 2 types of cysts i-e Follicular and Luteal cyst.

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Infectious Infertility: Disease resulting in bovine reproductive failure can be an infection with a Bacterium, Virus or parasite. Bacterias included: brucellosis,leptospirosis,campylobacteriosis (vibriosis), listeriosis,haemophilus,salmonella,shigella,actinomyces,E.coli,streptococcus,staphlococcus,bacillus,pseudomonas,pasteurellla,nocardia and chlamydia species. All these bacterias either directly or indirectly contribute to abortion and cause infertility.

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Mycotic: Fungal or mycotic infection of placenta is one of the most common causes of sporadic bovine abortion.Providing good management,nutrition and avoiding moldy feeds can reduce the incidence. Viral Causes : IBR,BVD Protozoal Causes : Trichomoniasis,Sarcocystosis,Neosporosis.

Infertility in ewe ::

Infertility in ewe : The main factors responsible for infertility in sheep are : Infectious agents Structural factors Functional factors Management factors

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Infectious Agents: Non specific infections of genital tract esp. the uterus are of minimal importance in ewes. Enzootic abortion of ewes also known as ovine abortion or kebbing.It is caused by: Chlamydia Toxoplasmosis Campylobacteriosis Salmonellosis Listeriosis Leptospirosis Brucellosis Q fever Ureaplasmosis Tick-borne fever

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Structural Factors: They include: Ovarian aplasia,Ovarian hypoplasia,bilateral hydrosalpinx,freemartinism,hermaphroditism,male pseudohermaphrodites,paraovarian cysts.

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Functional factors: Anestrous is uncommon in ewes. Ovarian and follicular cysts are rare. Embryonic death or resorption is a conspicuous feature of sheep infertility. Early embryonic death is associated with infectious disease e.g. toxoplasmosis

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Management Factors: Proper detection of estrous and artificial insemination. Introduction of vasectomized teasers into flock. Proper Ram: ewe Ratio. Number of rams per ewe vary depending upon age of ram, age of ewe. But normally 1:25 to 1:40 are suitable. Increasing energy intake will increase fecundity.

Infertility in Goat ::

Infertility in Goat : The main factors responsible for infertility in sheep are : Infectious agents Structural factors Functional factors Management factors

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Infectious Agents: Non-specific infections play minor role in causing infertility in does but specific infectious agents are important in causing abortion. It includes: Brucellosis, campylobacteriosis, chlamydial abortion, leptospirosis, Listeriosis, salmonellosis, toxoplasmosis, Q fever

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Structural Factors: Intersexes are common in goats. Intersexes can occur as result of freemartinism. Hermaphrodites. Functional Factors: Goat is seasonal breeder and it has irregular estrous cycle at the beginning and end of breeding season. Anestrous may be due to starvation, parasitism or mineral deficiencies.

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Managemental factors: Proper detection of estrous and artificial insemination. Nutrition including it. A, minerals and energy deficiencies reduce fertility. Stress induced abortions are seen when chased by dogs, transportation stress, adverse weather.

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Economic Importance of Infertility : Infertility in cattle accounts for major economic losses in dairy farming and dairy industry. Maintaining an infertile animal is an economic burden and in most countries such animals are driven to slaughterhouses. In cattle, nearly 10-30 per cent of lactations may be affected by infertility and reproductive disorders.

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Artificial breeding program depends on inherent fertility,health,nutrition and management of animal. Due to infertility if open span is increased by one estrous cycle this accounts loss of production of 20-25 days in addition to cost of treatment and vacant days,labor,etc. Studies of economics of infertility were undertaken and it was found that in Holstein cows the consequences of extending the calving interval from 12 to 14 months resulted in an average reduction in the annual financial return over feeding costs of 8.8% and resulted in average loss of 144 kg milk per cow and 0.15 calves per cow.

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