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Science Simulations:

Science Simulations Prof. Fong Soon Fook Pusat Pengajian Ilmu Pendidikan Universiti Sains Malaysia

Objectives:

Objectives Explore various science simulations Identify advantages of using simulations Effective applications of simulations in the classroom CD-based science simulations Internet-based science simulations Evaluation rubrics for science simulations

Slide 3:

Novice Apprentice Practitioner Expert Research < 6 resources 6-10 resources; some responses are research-based >10 varied resources; all responses are research-based >15 varied resources; all responses are research-based; facts are presented in the simulation Simulation Effects text descriptions with some graphics or sounds images and sounds are used to create an authentic setting images and sounds are changed throughout to create an authentic setting includes animation to show transition from one state to another Cause and Effect portrays accurate cause-and-effect relationships rays accurate cause-and-effect relationships for a variety of situations each unique response offers a unique effect; effects are primarily immediate includes long-term effects that are not apparent at the time of user’s response but emerge later as a reminder of previous actions Breadth more than one possibility exists for each situation more than one possibility exists for each situation many possibilities exist for each situation, mostly with immediate effects many varied possibilities exist for each situation with both immediate and long-term effects Navigation the user must know the acceptable responses to the prompts or questions the user selects from choices the user can easily enter responses or manipulate data; explanations and help are included the user can easily enter responses or manipulate data; informational windows assist the user as needed Links few errors in linking from one state to another no errors in linking from one state to another, except for dead-ends no errors in linking from one state to another; no dead-ends includes error traps to catch improper user input Simulation – Evaluation Rubric

Simulation :

Simulation Experimental work is an integral part of science courses. Although excellent science learning can take place using the simplest equipment, the integration of laboratory activities with classroom work requires careful balancing between time allocation and budget restrictions. Technology can be a powerful tool for learning science concepts and developing skills of measurement, analysis, and processing information. Virtual labs and simulations should not substitute for laboratory experience, but may be used to supplement and extend such experience.

Education research shows :

Education research shows 3. Kozma and Johnston (1991) conceptualized seven ways in which instructional technology can support learning: Enabling active engagement in construction of knowledge Making available real-world situations Providing representations in multiple modalities Drilling students on basic concepts to reach mastery Facilitating collaborative activity among students Seeing interconnections among concepts Simulating laboratory work ( Kozma , R.B., and J. Johnston. 1991. "The technological revolution comes to the classroom." Change 23(1):10-23.)

Advantages of using Simulations:

Advantages of using Simulations Simulations can help students translate among multiple representations. Simulations contain physical systems represented in many different ways in two or three-dimensions: pictures, graphs, words, equations, diagrams, data tables, contour maps, etc. The students can make sense of the concepts by seeing the connection between the representations and how one variable affects another.

Advantages of using Simulations:

Advantages of using Simulations 2 . Simulations can help students build mental models of physical, chemical, biological, geological or astronomical systems. Simulations allow students to visualize concepts that appear on textbooks or hear from their teachers in lectures. By using the simulation they can see a concrete situation that helps them build a mental model.

Advantages of using Simulations:

Advantages of using Simulations 3. Simulations can give students engaging, hands-on, active learning experiences. Simulations give students control when exploring scientific concepts and phenomena. 4. Simulations can help students understand equations as physical relationships among measurements. Simulations are great tools to help students recognize how equations relate observations and measurements. Using a simulation where the students are able to vary parameters and see the effect of these variations, the role of equations is powerfully enriched.

Advantages of using Simulations:

Advantages of using Simulations 5 . Simulations can serve as a vehicle for student collaboration. Students working in groups can use a simulation to explain and describe their understandings to each other. 6. Simulations can allow students to investigate phenomena that would not be possible to experience in a classroom or laboratory. Students can have access to investigations and equipment not commonly available in the classroom like studying a nuclear reactor.

What is needed to use simulations? :

What is needed to use simulations? Integrating simulations into the traditional classroom practice does not require sophisticated equipment. The basic equipment consists of a computer, a LCD projector and availability of an Internet connection though this is not necessary if the simulations are in a CD-ROM. Students can also access simulations individually in a computer lab or in a laptop environment. The most common requirements for using simulations are free plug-ins like Flash, Shockwave, and QuickTime. Your browser must support Java for some simulations. Most simulations are in the form of a Java Applet, a short program written in Java that is attached to a website and executed by a web browser. A large amount of simulations include general directions; an audio clip and the most refined include multiple representations (vectors and graphs) and let the user modify the parameters to collect data.

Pedagogies on using simulations in the science classroom? :

Pedagogies on using simulations in the science classroom? Digital technologies require us to rethink our approach to the educational process. The real challenge is not the actual technology, but finding pedagogies that use these digital tools to give our students an improved learning environment.

Pedagogy - Lectures:

Pedagogy - Lectures To help students visualize abstract concepts: the use of simulations brings a visual and dynamic nature to a lecture presentation. Photosynthesis To initiate a discussion on a reading assignment: simulations open up avenues of thought and discussion that are not typical of a textbook question.

Pedagogy - Interactive Demonstrations:

Pedagogy - Interactive Demonstrations Simulations can be used to ask students to make predictions, run the virtual experiment and then discuss the observations made and/or the collected data.

Pedagogy - Interactive Demonstrations:

Pedagogy - Interactive Demonstrations Simulations can serve to introduce the ideas and equipment of the lab experiment allowing the students to work through the laboratory faster and with less confusion.

Pedagogy - Pre-Lab Exercises:

Pedagogy - Pre-Lab Exercises Using a DC Circuits simulation to explain the concepts of voltage and current in different circuit arrangements prior to going to the lab.

Pedagogy - Cooperative Group Problem-Solving:

Pedagogy - Cooperative Group Problem-Solving Simulations can be given to a student group to solve challenging problems that require multiple steps. This strategy allows students to understand the material more clearly by engaging in a demanding, higher order thinking skills problem.

Pedagogy - Virtual Labs :

Pedagogy - Virtual Labs In many cases where time is a constraint or the equipment is not available virtual labs can provide the students with an accurate idea of a particular experiment by manipulating variables, collecting data, calculating, graphing and drawing conclusions.

Exploring Simulation resources:

Exploring Simulation resources

Interactive Simulations:

Interactive Simulations http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulations/category/new http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulations/category/physics http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulations/category/biology http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulations/category/chemistry http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulations/category/earth-science http://www.idecorp.com/WBS/virtual.htm

Physics Simulation http://apphysicsb.homestead.com/vls.html :

Physics Simulation http://apphysicsb.homestead.com/vls.html Experimental work is an integral part of introductory college-level courses such as the AP Physics courses. Although excellent physics learning can take place using the simplest equipment, the integration of laboratory activities with classroom work requires careful balancing between time allocation and budget restrictions. Web technology can be a powerful tool for learning physics concepts and developing skills of measurement, analysis, and processing information. Virtual labs and simulations should not substitute for laboratory experience, but may be used to supplement and extend such experience. You can use these simulations in the classroom to help the students visualize concepts or as virtual lab activities

Physics Simulations:

Physics Simulations PhET . Physics Education Technology Project at the University of Colorado includes over 50 excellent simulations on various areas of Mechanics, Waves and Electricity and Magnetism. The website has a searchable database of activities that integrate the use of the simulations. The simulations can be downloaded in its entirety for free! Physics Applets and Animations by Topic Excellent list created by Frank Noschese AP Central: Physics Web Guide The AP Physics Web Guide includes links and brief descriptions of simulations for every single topic of the AP Physics (B and  C) curriculum. Physics Simulation Library Collection of simulations from Interscience -Wiley to accompany Halliday Resnick 6ed. Each simulation includes audio and self-tests.

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