Gilded Age Industry

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1. The first federal regulatory agency designed to protect the public interest from business combinations was the :

1. The first federal regulatory agency designed to protect the public interest from business combinations was the Federal Trade Commission Interstate Commerce Commission Consumer Affairs Commission Federal Anti-trust Commission Warren Commission Corporations used this Amendment (designed to protect the rights of ex-slaves during Reconstruction) to defend themselves against regulation by state governments?

2. Which of the following socially-conscious authors does NOT match-up with the novel next to his or her name. :

2. Which of the following socially-conscious authors does NOT match-up with the novel next to his or her name. Jack London - The Call of the Wild Frank Norris - The Octopus Charlotte Perkins Gilman - Women and Economics Stephen Crane - The Gilded Age Edward Bellamy - Looking Backward Name the organization that was formed by women to combat the effects of alcoholism in America during the Gilded Age. Name one of the women involved in the organization.

3. By 1900, American attitudes toward labor began to change as the public came to recognize the right of workers to bargain collectively and strike. Nevertheless :

3. By 1900, American attitudes toward labor began to change as the public came to recognize the right of workers to bargain collectively and strike. Nevertheless Labor unions continued to decline in membership. The Knights of Labor failed to take advantage of the situation. The vast majority of employers continued to fight organized labor. Congress declared labor unions illegal. Big business continued to fail in their attempts to break up strikes. The most effective and most enduring labor union of the Gilded Age and its founder? - “Show me the country in which there are no strikes and I’ll show you that country in which there is no liberty.”

4. The “Gospel of Wealth” referred to the idea that :

4. The “Gospel of Wealth” referred to the idea that Excess wealth would prevent those who possessed it from going to heaven. Real wealth comes from the love of those around you, not from money. Money talks. Being wealthy wasn’t sinful so long as you didn’t hurt other people in the process of gathering that wealth. Rich people obtained their wealth because God gave it to them. Name the best-selling idealistic novelist and lecturer who wrote “Progress and Poverty”. His socialistic “single tax” rhetoric and ideas were quite unpopular with the wealthy and were extremely controversial for the time.

5. In the cartoon shown below, Thomas Nast presents Boss Tweed as:

5. In the cartoon shown below, Thomas Nast presents Boss Tweed as A politician ruled by greed. A benefactor of the public. A political reformer. A politician corruptly influenced by business. A politician who rejected business influence. Who co-wrote the book The Gilded Age which eventually became the name of this era in U.S. History?

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Analyze the cartoon and explain how it relates to U.S. economic and governmental practices of the late 1800s. Are Rockefeller’s words reflective of the time? Explain

Overview:

Overview The most important force reshaping American politics, diplomacy, life, and thought in the late 19th century was industrialization. Between 1865 and 1890, the U.S. changed from an agricultural country to an industrialized nation with all of the advantages and disadvantages that go along with such a transformation. Gilded Age Economics & Industrialization

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Themes of the Gilded Age: Politics: hard vs. soft money ('70s & '90s); tariff ('80s); corruption due to greed, patronage & trusts (throughout late 19th c.) Industrialism: U.S. became the world’s most powerful economy by 1890s: railroads, steel, oil, electricity, banking America was transformed from an agrarian nation to an urban nation between 1865 and 1920. Urbanization: millions of "New Immigrants" came from Southern and Eastern Europe, mostly to work in factories. Unions and Reform movements sought to curb the injustices of industrialism. Farmers increasingly lost ground in the new industrial economy and eventually organized (Populism) The "Last West": farming, mining, & cattle raising By 1900 society had become more stratified into classes than any time before or since.

FAMOUS PEOPLE:

FAMOUS PEOPLE CHARLES DARWIN – “Origins of the Species” HERBERT SPENCER – Social Darwinism ANDREW CARNEIGE – Steel Tycoon JOHN D. ROCKEFELLER – Oil Tycoon HORATIO ALGER COMMODORE VANDERBILT – Railroad Tycoon MARK TWAIN - author

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Plentiful raw materials Available capital Available labor “Yankee” ingenuity Broadening Markets Government encouragement Attraction of able leadership Causes of the Economic Revolution

The rich resources of the East had scarcely been tapped while still greater riches waited in the West:

The rich resources of the East had scarcely been tapped while still greater riches waited in the West Lumber : Great Lakes, Rockies, Pacific NW, & Parts of South Coal : PA westward Iron ore : PA, AL, MI, MN Oil : PA & Southwest Copper : MI, MT, AZ Silver : CO & NV Gold : CA & SD Lead : CO, MO, IL A. Plentiful Raw Materials

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Foreign (England, Holland, Germany) Investors eager to finance American industry because: a) Higher interest rates were paid b) U.S. bought more abroad than it sold abroad (Unfavorable balance of trade) 2) DOMESTIC (Decline of commercial industry) -American ships which carried 66% of commerce in 1860, carried only 9% in 1900 -Money formerly invested in commerce flowed into industry -Factories expand/More capital to reinvest B. Available Capital

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1) Within CW soldiers / Former farmers / Freedmen -Improved agricultural machinery reduced need for farmers (over 4 million freed to work in industry) 1830 - 1900: From 3 hrs. - 10 min. per wheat bushel C. Available Labor

2) From Abroad -Between 1860 and 1900 almost 14 million immigrants reached the U.S. (Push - Pull factors):

2) From Abroad -Between 1860 and 1900 almost 14 million immigrants reached the U.S. (Push - Pull factors) Push (Causes) Overcrowding at home Escape military service Religious/Racial persecution Liberalized emigration laws Pull (Attractions) Demand for cheap labor in U.S. Shipping/RR companies advertisements Freedom/New life

Mechanical / Managerial skill allowed industrialists to offset their greatest handicap: competition with cheap-labor areas with lower standards of living :

Mechanical / Managerial skill allowed industrialists to offset their greatest handicap: competition with cheap-labor areas with lower standards of living 1)Mass production techniques -Produced more cheaply, despite higher labor costs -Europe: Tradition hindered innovation 2)Inventions -638,000 patents issued -typewriter, incan. lamp, telephone, Bessemer process, dynamo, air brake, RR parlor & refrig. car D. "Yankee" Ingenuity

U. S. Patents Granted:

U. S. Patents Granted 1790s  276 patents issued. 1990s  1,119,220 patents issued.

Thomas Alva Edison:

Thomas Alva Edison “Wizard of Menlo Park”

The Light Bulb:

The Light Bulb

The Phonograph (1877):

The Phonograph (1877)

The Ediphone or Dictaphone:

The Ediphone or Dictaphone

The Motion Picture Camera:

The Motion Picture Camera

Alexander Graham Bell:

Alexander Graham Bell Telephone (1876)

Alternate Current:

Alternate Current George Westinghouse

Alternate Current:

Alternate Current Westinghouse Lamp ad

The Airplane:

The Airplane Wilbur Wright Orville Wright Kitty Hawk, NC – December 7, 1903

Model T Automobile:

Model T Automobile Henry Ford I want to pay my workers so that they can afford my product!

Domestic and foreign markets expanded steadily throughout the Gilded Age:

Domestic and foreign markets expanded steadily throughout the Gilded Age 1) Improved living standards -Econ. Growth, industrialization, and new inventions allowed Americans to live above their immediate means 2) RR building -1860 (31,000 mi) - 1890 (164,000 mi.) -Expanded markets for domestic mftrs. E. Broadening Markets

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“LAISSEZ-FAIRE” -Government non-interference with industry -Allowed businesses to: Pay low wages Charge high prices Employ corrupt practices Enter into monopolies w/o govt. interference Govt. did support through: -High tariffs, land grants and loans to RRs F. Government Encouragement

The ablest men of the generation were attracted into industry rather than politics:

The ablest men of the generation were attracted into industry rather than politics Industrial geniuses who in an earlier generation might have been outstanding statesmen. “CAPTAINS OF INDUSTRY” OR “ROBBER BARONS” G. Leadership was attracted

Impact of Economic Revolution on American Life:

Impact of Economic Revolution on American Life When the Civil War began, Americans were an agricultural people, provincial in viewpoint, unaware of the world around them, distrustful of strong government, and culturally immature. Before the close of the 19th century, they had become an industrial people, international in viewpoint, imperialistically minded, and culturally awakened.

New Business Culture:

New Business Culture Laissez Faire  the ideology of the Industrial Age. Individual as a moral and economic ideal. Individuals should compete freely in the marketplace. The market was not man-made or invented. No room for government in the market!

2. Social Darwinism:

2. Social Darwinism British economist. Advocate of laissez-faire . Adapted Darwin’s ideas from the “Origin of Species” to humans. Notion of “Survival of the Fittest.” Herbert Spencer

3. Social Darwinism in America:

3. Social Darwinism in America William Graham Sumner Individuals must have absolute freedom to struggle, succeed or fail. Therefore, state intervention to reward society and the economy is futile!

New Business Culture: “The American Dream?”:

New Business Culture: “The American Dream?” Protestant (Puritan) “Work Ethic” * Horatio Alger [100+ novels] Is the idea of the “self-made man” a MYTH??

New Type of Business Entities created by self made men:

New Type of Business Entities created by self made men Pools Trusts  Standard Oil, John D. Rockefeller

Standard Oil Co.:

Standard Oil Co.

New Type of Business Entities:

New Type of Business Entities 1. Pools Trusts: Horizontal Integration  John D. Rockefeller * Vertical Integration Gustavus Swift  Meat-packing Andrew Carnegie  U. S. Steel

New Type of Business Entities:

New Type of Business Entities

New Financial Businessman:

New Financial Businessman The Broker: Provides Capital for Business * J. Pierpont Morgan

Wall Street – 1867 & 1900:

Wall Street – 1867 & 1900

The Reorganization of Work:

The Reorganization of Work Frederick W. Taylor The Principles of Scientific Management (1911)

The Reorganization of Work:

The Reorganization of Work The Assembly Line

“The Protectors of Our Industries”:

“The Protectors of Our Industries”

The “Bosses” of the Senate:

The “Bosses” of the Senate

The “Robber Barons” of the Past:

The “Robber Barons” of the Past

Cornelius [“Commodore”] Vanderbilt:

Cornelius [“Commodore”] Vanderbilt Can’t I do what I want with my money?

The Gospel of Wealth: Religion in the Era of Industrialization:

The Gospel of Wealth: Religion in the Era of Industrialization Russell H. Conwell Wealth no longer looked upon as bad. Puritans Viewed as a sign of God’s approval. Christian duty to accumulate wealth. Should not help the poor to much. Need to succeed on their own

Richard Conwell – Founder of Temple University $10,000 from William Bucknell:

Richard Conwell – Founder of Temple University $10,000 from William Bucknell “Acres of Diamonds” "I say that you ought to get rich, and it is your duty to get rich.... The men who get rich may be the most honest men you find in the community. Let me say here clearly .. . ninety-eight out of one hundred of the rich men of America are honest. That is why they are rich. That is why they are trusted with money. That is why they carry on great enterprises and find plenty of people to work with them. It is because they are honest men. ... ... I sympathize with the poor, but the number of poor who are to be sympathised with is very small. To sympathize with a man whom God has punished for his sins ... is to do wrong.... let us remember there is not a poor person in the United States who was not made poor by his own shortcomings. ..."

“On Wealth”:

“On Wealth” Andrew Carnegie The Anglo-Saxon race is superior. “ Gospel of Wealth ” (1901). Inequality is inevitable and good. Wealthy should act as “trustees” for their “poorer brethren.” "Acres of Diamonds"

Regulating the Trusts:

Regulating the Trusts 1877  Munn. v. IL 1886  Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific Railroad Company v. IL 1890  Sherman Antitrust Act * in “restraint of trade” * “rule of reason” loophole 1895  US v. E. C. Knight Co.

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Industrialization forced various segments of the population to reassess their roles in society: ECONOMIC CHANGES

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Long accustomed to dominating the nation, farmers were forced into a subsidiary role as industrialists gained control Led to a rebellion which launched the agrarian uprising in the last quarter of the 19th century (Populism) I. THE FARMERS

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Bad Weather (1886-1887) Foreign Competition drives down prices High cost of farm machinery RRs charge high prices to transport food to markets Problems facing farmers

Increased Demand for Farmers’ Goods:

THE FARMERS' PLIGHT Gilded Age Increased Demand for Farmers’ Goods Farmer increases investment Increased Grain (Crop) Output Overproduction! More supply than demand (Crop Prices drop) 1870 - 1897 Wheat: $108.70 To 63.30 / 100 bushels Farmers unable to pay off loans Bank foreclosures (equipment, land, mortgages) ORGANIZE! Grange/ Populist home, equip.

“THE MONEY ISSUE”:

“THE MONEY ISSUE” Deflation makes the dollar worth more Inflation makes the dollar worth less Late 19th cent. Farmers were debtors Debtors like inflation $ worth less / debt is less Increasing the money supply - creates inflation Supply & Demand: If supply of something increases it becomes less valuable (even the dollar) ELECTION OF 1896 Democrat: Wm. Jennings Bryan Republican: Wm. McKinley “Silverites” vs. “Gold bugs” (working America) (big business)

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1 - Senators elected by the people 2 - Government ownership of RRs, banks, and communication 3 - 8-hour work day (factory workers) 4 - Expand the money supply (print more paper currency) POPULIST PARTY PLATFORM

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Powerless to bargain individually with big corporations Formation of labor unions for better wages and shorter hours Minority of workers joined radical parties to express their discontent II. THE LABORERS

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Child Labor

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Child Labor

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“Galley Labor”

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Labor Unrest: 1870-1900

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The Molly Maguires (1875) James McParland

Led to Union Formation Unions Formed To::

Led to Union Formation Unions Formed To: Increase Wages Improve Working Conditions Organize workers to bargain with employers Guarantee job security Compete with growing size and strength of industry

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William Sylvis 1st union for skilled and unskilled workers 8 hour day Sought government help Political party Skilled and Unskilled (blacks and women) End child labor Government ownership of RR’s Uriah Stephens Terence Powderly Samuel Gompers Skilled workers No Blacks No Women No recent immigrants Workers paid dues Closed shop: employer hire only union workers Strikes Most successful Why? Bargained with employer (Did not seek government help) Skilled workers (More respected by management)

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Knights of Labor Terence V. Powderly An injury to one is the concern of all!

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Goals of the Knights of Labor Eight-hour workday. Workers’ cooperatives. Worker-owned factories. Abolition of child and prison labor. Increased circulation of greenbacks. Equal pay for men and women. Safety codes in the workplace. Prohibition of contract foreign labor. Abolition of the National Bank.

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The American Federation of Labor: 1886 Samuel Gompers

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How the AF of L Would Help the Workers Catered to the skilled worker. Represented workers in matters of national legislation. Maintained a national strike fund. Evangelized the cause of unionism. Prevented disputes among the many craft unions. Mediated disputes between management and labor. Pushed for closed shops .

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WHO? B&O Railroad; gradually every Railroad WHY? Cut wages, fired union workers WHAT? Strike turned violent, federal troops called in (10 dead) -Strike failed Railroad Strike of 1877

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The Great Railroad Strike of 1877

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The Great Railroad Strike of 1877

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The Tournament of Today: A Set-to Between Labor and Monopoly

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Anarchists Meet on the Lake Front in 1886

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WHO? McCormick-Harvester Company (Chicago) WHY? Workers wanted an 8-hour work day WHAT? Strike turned violent, police showed up, bomb exploded (anarchist), 11 die, strike failed (Knights discredited) Haymarket Strike 1886

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Haymarket Riot (1886) McCormick Harvesting Machine Co.

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Governor John Peter Altgeld

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Haymarket Martyrs

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WHO: U.S. Steel Company (Carnegie/H.C. Frick) WHY: Management cut workers pay WHAT: Strike turned violent, Pinkertons and federal troops called in; 16 die; -Strike failed Homestead Strike (1892)

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The Corporate “Bully-Boys”: Pinkerton Agents

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WHO? Pullman Company (made train cars) WHY? 1893 Depression forced Pullman to cut wages but not the rent (“company town”) WHAT? Pullman hired new workers (SCABS); turned violent; federal troops sent in -Strike failed Pullman Strike (1893)

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A “Company Town”: Pullman, IL

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Pullman Cars A Pullman porter

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The Pullman Strike of 1894

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President Grover Cleveland If it takes the entire army and navy to deliver a postal card in Chicago, that card will be delivered!

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The Pullman Strike of 1894 Government by injunction!

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?? Questions to Ponder ?? Was the formation of labor unions avoidable? Identify the Labor Unions and political groups that developed during this period. What were the primary functions of the Unions? Do you believe workers during the late 1800s made the right choice to fight (sometimes using violence) for better working conditions? Would you have made the same choice? Samuel Gompers

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The Socialists Eugene V. Debs

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International Workers of the World ( “Wobblies” )

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“Big Bill” Haywood of the IWW Violence was justified to overthrow capitalism.

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Employees refuse to work until their demands are met. STRIKE! Parading in front of the workplace PICKETING! Workers and general public refuse to purchase products and services of a company whose workers are striking BOYCOTT! Agreement between employer and union that the company will hire only union workers CLOSED SHOP! Special label placed on product signifying it was made by union labor UNION MADE! Weapons of Unions / Employees

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Hire workers to fill jobs of striking employees SCABS!/STRIKEBREAKERS! Employer refuses to permit employees to work until they accept conditions of employment set by mgmt. LOCKOUT! List containing names of employees active in union affairs. BLACKLISTS! Contract signed by employees which states they will not join a union. YELLOW DOG CONTRACTS! A shop where union and non-union workers may be employed. OPEN SHOP! Employers seek to prevent growth of discontent by establishing a welfare program. WELFARE CAPITALISM! Weapons of Mgmt./Employers

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Arbitration (must be followed) -Neutral third party settles a disagreement Injunction -A court order to settle a dispute Mediation (does not have to be followed) -Neutral third party makes a recommendation to solve a disagreement THE 3 "TIONS" OF LABOR AND MANAGEMENT

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Workers Benefits Today

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Individuals and groups who are; Concerned with plight of poor Fearful of the decline in economic democracy leading to a decline in political democracy Attack on Social Darwinism and the “gospel of wealth” mentality III. THE HUMANITARIANS

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#1 - Industrialization and specialization increased interdependence -Industrialization “welded” the U.S. into a compact economic unit, with each person dependent on others for his/her livelihood -Farmers/Craftsmen diminishing role (laborers in the industrial machine rising) Gilded Age Generalizations

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#2 - Regions became interconnected and interdependent through communication of ideas and sharing of resources. -West: Specialized in food and raw materials -East: Specialized in manufacturing and food -South: Specialized in cotton and tobacco Gilded Age Generalizations

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#3 - Industrialization brought both positive and negative changes -Advantages: Better living, world leadership, favorable balance of trade -Negatives: Monopolies, need to protect workers and consumers, growth of cities (+ & -) Gilded Age Generalizations

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#4 - A mass production society is closely related to mass consumption -Greater incomes and more people create a demand for more products Gilded Age Generalizations

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Gilded Age Generalizations #5 - Government incentives promote industrialization -Tariff, aid to railroads, unrestricted immigration promoted industrialization

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-Life became more impersonal -Workers responsible for one small operation (did not see “fruit” of their labor) -Gap between employer and employee widened (corporation growth) -Rapid growth of labor unions to collectively bargain with “distant” employer GILDED AGE SOCIAL FACTORS

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