3. Industrial Revolution & Immigration

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The Industrial Revolution & Immigration:

The Industrial Revolution & Immigration Social Studies


2 Alexander Graham Bell Thomas Alva Edison Orville and Wilbur Wright Kitty Hawk General Electric Bell Telephone Company phonograph Menlo Park patent light bulb power station Henry Ford airplane Flyer Model T assembly line Mary had a Little Lamb Telephone inventor Industrial Revolution 2 immigrants Ellis Island Angel Island poverty hunger war religious persecution diseases Annie Moore Immigration Act of 1924


3 Triangle Shirtwaist Company sweatshop mechanization mines factories child labor "Mother" Jones strike low wages long hours labor unions Labor Day Lewis Hine Samuel Gompers American Federation of Labor strikebreakers unsanitary unsafe


4 Andrew Carnegie John D. Rockefeller steel oil monopoly Pittsburgh robber baron libraries competitors philanthropist. Standard Oil Company corporation stock shareholder Free enterprise investor human resources capital resources property consumer profit

EQ. How did Alexander Graham Bell’s invention change the way people live?:

EQ. How did Alexander Graham Bell’s invention change the way people live ?

The Industrial Revolution:

The Industrial Revolution Because of the tens of thousands of new inventions that were developed during the 1890s, the United States became known as the “invention capital of the world.” These inventions led to the creation of new businesses and industries . Two inventors stood out from the rest – Alexander Graham Bell and Thomas Alva Edison .

Alexander Graham Bell:

Alexander Graham Bell Alexander Graham Bell was a teacher of the deaf. He had set out to invent a machine that could transmit the human voice over a wire . On March 10, 1876, Bell transmitted the first message. He called to his assistant in another room with the words, “Mr. Watson – come here – I want to see you .” In 1878 the Bell Telephone Company was formed by Alexander’s father-in-law. In 1880 his company became American Telephone & Telegraph Compan y ( AT&T ) after merging with other existing telephone companies . By 1900, over 1.5 million telephones were in use.

President James Garfield:

President James Garfield In 1881 Alexander Graham Bell invented a metal detector in an attempt to save the life of President James Garfield who had been shot by an assassin. The metal detector worked when tested, but it failed to located the bullet in the President Garfield’s body. Some believe that the metal bed frame the President was lying made it impossible for the device to detect the bullet.


As a group answer the following question on Edmodo : How has Alexander Graham Bell’s invention changed the way people live ? Are we better off because of Alexander Graham Bell’s invention? Explain why or why not. * Remember that your answer should be in complete sentences. Use proper grammar, spelling, and punctuation.

EQ. How did Thomas Edison’s inventions change the way people live?:

EQ. How did Thomas Edison’s inventions change the way people live ?

Thomas Edison:

Thomas Edison Because his teachers thought he was slow, Thomas Edison attended school for only a few months. His mother taught him for a while, but eventually Thomas began to teach himself by reading voraciously and doing experiments in the basement of his home . Thomas Edison was fascinated with how things worked. When he was only 11 years old he built his own telegraph set. Edison never attended college. When he was older he said that his mother was the person most responsible for his success. San Francisco 1851

Thomas Edison:

Thomas Edison In March of 1876, Edison set up a laboratory in Menlo Park , New Jersey . Edison became known as “ The Wizard of Menlo Park ” because of the hundreds of inventions he created there. In December of 1877 Edison wrapped a piece of tin foil around a cylinder and made the first audio recording with the words to "Mary Had a Little Lamb.” The phonograph was Edison’s favorite invention.

Thomas Edison:

Thomas Edison Following the invention of the phonograph, Edison set out to build a light bulb that would last long enough to be useful. The most difficult part of his task was finding a filament that would not quickly burn out or explode. While searching for just the right filament, Edison is remembered for saying: “ I’ve tried everything. I have not failed. I’ve just found 10,000 ways that won’t work .” In 1879, after hundreds of experiments, Edison and his team of researchers, known as “ muckers ,” made a light bulb with a filament made out of carbon that lasted for two days. Light bulb used in a demonstration in 1879.

Menlo Park:

Menlo Park A replica of Thomas Edison’s Menlo Park’s laboratory.

Thomas Edison:

Thomas Edison On September 4, 1882, Edison opened the first commercial electric power station on Pearl Street in New York City. The power station was needed to provide electricity for his newly created light bulbs .

Thomas Edison:

Thomas Edison Some of Edison’s other inventions included the kinetograph (a motion picture camera), the kinetoscope (a viewer for watching motion pictures), flexible celluloid film, a mimeograph machine, the first alkaline storage battery, and a cement mixer . Edison held a record 1,093 patents . Most of these patents were not for new inventions, but rather for improvements made to the inventions of others. In fact, many of Edison’s patents were for inventions made by his employees. In 1890 Edison started a company known as General Electric .


As a group answer the following question on Edmodo : What do you think Thomas Edison’s most important invention was? Explain Why. (Group members may give different answers.) How has Thomas Edison’s inventions changed the way people live? What things would you not be able to do without Thomas Edison’s inventions? * Remember that your answer should be in complete sentences. Use proper grammar, spelling, and punctuation.

EQ. How did the Wright brothers’ invention change the way people live?:

EQ. How did the Wright brothers’ invention change the way people live ?

Orville & Wilbur Wright:

Orville & Wilbur Wright In the fall of 1900, two brothers named Orville and Wilbur Wright began experimenting with gliders to find out if man could fly. They traveled to Kitty Hawk , North Carolina , to secretly test their experimental gliders. By 1902 the brothers had flown a glider a distance of about 600 feet . They next built an airplane they called Flyer . The plane had a lightweight motor and a propeller that pulled the plane forward. Wilbur and Orville Wright

Orville & Wilbur Wright:

Orville & Wilbur Wright When the plane was ready to be tested the brothers flipped a coin to see who would attempt to fly the plane first. Wilbur won the coin toss, but their first attempt at flying the plane ended in failure . Three days later, on December 17, 1903, Wilbur’s brother, Orville, attempted to fly the plane. This time the test of the Flyer was a success. The first flight went a total distance of about 120 feet and lasted 12 seconds. Orville Wright’s first flight on December 17, 1903.


As a group answer the following question on Edmodo : How has the Wright brothers’ inventions changed the way people live? What things would people not be able to do without their invention? * Remember that your answer should be in complete sentences. Use proper grammar, spelling, and punctuation.

EQ. How did the Henry Ford change the way we live?:

EQ. How did the Henry Ford change the way we live?

Henry Ford:

Henry Ford The first automobiles were made in Europe in the late 1880s. Americans began building automobiles in the U.S. in the 1890s. The first automobiles were expensive and took a long time to build. In 1913 Henry Ford created the first assembly line for building automobiles. The assembly line moved cars on a moving belt. Each factory worker fitted one part to the car as it passed them. The process allowed automobiles to be built for more quickly and far less expensively .

Henry Ford:

Henry Ford In 1908, Ford’s Model T sold for $850. In 1925 a Model T cost only $300. By 1923 one out of every two cars sold in the United States was a Model T.

EQ. Who were the robber barons and how did they make their money?:

EQ. Who were the robber barons and how did they make their money ?

Central Pacific Railroad:

Central Pacific Railroad A robber baron was a powerful U.S. businessman or financial investor of the late 19th century considered to have become wealthy by exploiting natural resources or by some other unfair or dishonest means. Robber Barons Andrew Carnegie Steel Jay Gould Financier J . P. Morgan Financier John D. Rockefeller Oil Cornelius Vanderbilt Railroads

Andrew Carnegie:

Andrew Carnegie The process of making steel was expensive. As a result most machinery had been made of iron. In the 1850s, however, a process whereby steel could be produced cheaply was discovered . In 1873 Andrew Carnegie built a steel mill in Pittsburgh , Pennsylvania , and began making steel far less expensively using this method. He was able to do this by controlling the entire process of producing the steel and then shipping the steel.

Andrew Carnegie:

Andrew Carnegie He purchased iron and coal mines so that his steel mills would have the necessary resources to produce steel. He acquired railroads and ships so that these resources could be delivered to his mills and so that the steel they produced could be delivered all over the country. In 1870 the United States had produced 68,000 tons of steel. By 1900 the United States was producing 10 million tons of steel a year. This steel was needed to build buildings, bridges, automobiles, trains, and railroads.

Andrew Carnegie:

Andrew Carnegie By 1900 Andrew Carnegie had become one of the wealthiest men in the world . In 1901 he retired and spent the rest of his life using his money to establish libraries, museums, universities, hospitals, parks, and concert halls throughout the United States. A political cartoon from 1882, showing the attitude many had toward the Chinese. The caption reads, "We must draw the line somewhere , you know ."

John D. Rockefeller :

John D. Rockefeller In 1859 a hole was drilled in western Pennsylvania and oil came up from the ground. This discovery led to the birth of the oil industry . In 1863 a man named John D. Rockefeller went into the oil refining business. He told his friends that he wanted to make a hundred thousand dollars . Kerosene was one of the most important products produced from this oil until kerosene lamps were replaced by electric lights. At this same time Americans began buying cars in large numbers and so this oil was needed to produce gasoline and motor oil.

John D. Rockefeller :

John D. Rockefeller Standard Oil became a monopoly. A monopoly is a company that controls an entire industry. By 1879 Standard Oil controlled about 90% of the oil business in the United States . A business that is a monopoly is able to charge higher prices for its goods or services because they have few, if any, competitors. Customers are then forced to choose whether they will pay the higher prices or go without the goods or services offered by the company.

EQ. What is a corporation?:

EQ. What is a corporation?


Corporations It was during this time that many businesses became corporations. A corporation is a company owned by people who invest their money in the company in hopes that the company will make a profit . Individuals purchase shares of stock , which represent ownership of a portion of a company.

Free Enterprise System:

Free Enterprise System Free enterprise is an economic system in which people are free to start their own businesses and own their own property . Human resources are the people employed by a company or institution that contribute to the production of goods and services . Capital resources are the machines, equipment, and money that are used by a company to produce goods and services . A consumer is a person who buys goods and services.


Immigrants Twenty-six million immigrants came to the United States between 1870 and 1924. By 1920, 1 out of every 4 people living in the United States had been born in another country . Many of these immigrants were either people from Europe or Jews who were fleeing poverty, hunger, war, injustice, and religious persecution . Many individuals spent their life’s savings just to come to the United States.

Ellis Island:

Ellis Island When these immigrants arrived in the United States their first stop was either at Ellis Island in New York City or Angel Island in San Francisco . Ellis Island is located on the southern tip of Manhattan Island. Around 20 million people made a stop on the island during its years of operation between 1892-1924 . On Ellis Island, immigrants were checked for diseases and questioned about where they would live and work.

Ellis Island:

Ellis Island The first immigrant to pass through Ellis was a "rosy-cheeked Irish girl," Annie Moore , age 15, from County Cork. She came with her two younger brothers to join their parents in New York City. -- ellisisland.org The most immigrants processed in one day occurred on April 17, 1907 when 11,747 people passed through Ellis Island . -- ellisisland.org Some have estimated that nearly half of all Americans today can trace their family history to at least one person who passed through Ellis Island.

Immigration Act of 1924:

Immigration Act of 1924 In the 1920’s congress passed laws that began to restrict the number of immigrants allowed in the United States. The Immigration Act of 1924 reduced the number of immigrants to 164,000 a year. This was far below the 1,004,756 immigrants who entered the U.S. in 1907.

EQ. What made it possible for more settlers to move to the west?:

EQ. What made it possible for more settlers to move to the west?

Angel Island:

Angel Island On Angel Island , Chinese immigrants had to prove they had family already living in the United States before they were allowed to enter the United States. Immigrants would often wait weeks or months before they were allowed to enter the country .


Sweatshops With the development of new inventions and the rise of corporations, life for the average American worker began to change . While small businesses continued to exist, more and more people were being employed by factories and mines. Some individuals, desperate for employment, worked in sweatshops. Sweatshops are small factories often found in buildings that have unsafe or unsanitary working conditions. Employees usually work excessively long hours for low wages.

Triangle Shirtwaist Company:

Triangle Shirtwaist Company One such sweatshop was the Triangle Shirtwaist Company located in New York City. On March 25, 1911, a fire broke out at the factory and took the lives of 146 immigrant women, some as young as 15 years old . The owners had often locked the exits claiming that employees stole from the factory.

Triangle Shirtwaist Company:

Triangle Shirtwaist Company When firefighters arrived they found that their ladders were far too short to reach the women who were hanging out the windows and the water from the hoses could not reach the top floors . Many women chose to jump to their deaths rather than burn alive.

Child Labor:

Child Labor Many of the new industrial jobs were filled by immigrants. Immigrants were often not only accustomed to a lower standard of living, but also desperate for work. Therefore, they would often be willing to take jobs that paid low wages and required long hours that native-born Americans would not . In 1870, there were 750,000 children under the age of 15 working in mines and factories. This number did not including children who worked for their families in businesses or on farms . By 1911, more than two million American children under the age of 16 were working - many of them 12 hours or more, six days a week.

Child Labor:

Child Labor Glass factory: "...boys traveled as distance of nearly 22 miles in an 8-hour shift at a constant slow run to and from ovens... average pay of 72 cents per 8-hour shift ....” Garment Factory : "...to reach their quota, girls had to put in an 84-hour week at a wage averaging 5 cents an hour ...“ Silk Mills: "...girl not 9 years old... cleaned bobbins for 3 cents an hour... must stand at their work... 12-hour shifts... by night... unceasingly... watching the threads... before... scores of revolving spindles... some of them making 25,000 revolutions per minute...."

Child Labor:

Child Labor Cannery: "...children as young as six employed as headers and cleaners (of shrimp and fish)... stand for shifts of 12 hours and longer in open sheds... hands immersed in cold water ...“ Soap-Packing Plants: "...girls were exposed to caustic soda that turned their nails yellow and ate away at their fingers…”

EQ. What drew African Americans to the west?:

EQ. What drew African Americans to the west?

Women in the Workplace:

Women in the Workplace Women usually earned about half as much as men. One woman wrote, “It took me months and months to save up money to buy a dress or a pair of shoes.”

EQ. What inventions made life on the Great Plains possible?:

EQ. What inventions made life on the Great Plains possible?

Labor Unions:

Labor Unions Employees organized labor unions in an effort to get safer working conditions, shorter work weeks with fewer hours, and higher wages. Most business fought these unions and would fire employees who joined one . Labor unions would sometimes go on strike , or refuse to work, in an effort to get business owners to meet their demands . Business owners, religious organizations, and politicians also worked to improve conditions found in mines and factories.

Mother Jones:

Mother Jones Mary Harris Jones , called “Mother” Jones by many, was one of the most famous labor union workers . In 1900 when coal miners in Pennsylvania called a strike, “Mother” Jones gathered together a group of women to turn away strikebreakers . In 1903 “Mother” Jones led a group of children to protest child labor in mines. As a result, Pennsylvania passed a law in 1905 forbidding children under the age of 14 from working.

American Federation of Labor:

American Federation of Labor In 1886 Samuel Gompers formed the American Federation of Labor , or AFL . This organization helped get laws passed that ended child labor, shortened working hours, and required employers to pay workers for injuries they sustained while working.

Lewis Hine:

Lewis Hine Lewis Hine , a New York City school teacher, spent twelve years taking pictures of children working to make people aware of how children were being taken advantage of and mistreated.

Labor Day:

Labor Day In September of 1882, labor unions in New York City celebrated the first Labor Day . Thousands of workers marched through the streets calling for fairer pay, shorter work days, and an end to child labor . Within a few years, workers across the United States were celebrating Labor Day. In 1894, Congress officially recognized Labor Day as a national holiday. Labor Day is celebrated on the first Monday of September.

EQ. What did cowboys do?:

EQ. What did cowboys do?


Immigrants The number of people living in cities doubled between the end of the Civil War and the year 1900 to 30 million people . One reason cities were growing so rapidly was because of the millions of immigrants moving to America . Most immigrants headed to the cities in the Northeast. Here they lived in communities of people who spoke their language and had similar customs . Life in the United States could be very difficult for these immigrants. They were hoping, however, for a better life, especially for their children.


Urbanization Immigrants were not the only reason cities were growing so rapidly. Another reason for this growth was urbanization. Urbanization is the movement of people from rural areas to cities.


Mechanization Mechanization is one reason people were able to move to the cities. Mechanization is the using of machines to do work . Mechanization allowed farmers to farm more land in less time. It also allowed them to grow crops to sell. As farm machinery improved, farmers were able to grow food to feed more and more people . Mechanization also lead to the building of new factories which led to many jobs being created in cities.


Slums Immigrants often found it difficult to find a place to live because there were so many people arriving from other countries. Many often ended up living in slums. A slum is a poor, crowded section of town with run-down and unsafe housing.


Tenements Many of these people lived in tenements. A tenement is a building that is divided into small apartments. Some of these tenements did not even have heat or hot water. Bathrooms were often in the hallway and were shared by several families . Under these conditions, diseases spread quickly.

Public Baths:

Public Baths In 1895, the governor of New York signed a law that required large cities to “establish and maintain such public baths as the local Board of Health may determine to be necessary .” The law stated that “each bath shall be kept open not less than fourteen hours for each day, and both hot and cold water be provided.”

Great Chicago Fire:

Great Chicago Fire In Chicago, many wooden buildings had been built with little thought of fire safety. In 1905 a fire broke out and spread very quickly. When it was finally put out 24 hours later, one third of the city had been destroyed and nearly 100,000 people were left without a place to live . This has become known as the Great Chicago Fire . Some say the fire started when Mrs. O’Leary’s cow kicked over a kerosene lamp.

San Francisco Earthquake:

San Francisco Earthquake On April 18, 1906 at 5:13 AM, a massive earthquake struck San Francisco . Hundreds, if not thousands, of people died when tenements collapsed. A fire broke out in the city and burned for four days . Historians now estimate that more than 3,000 people died from all causes and that $500,000,000 (1906 dollars) in damage was caused.

Influenza Epidemic:

Influenza Epidemic October 1918 turned out to be the deadliest months in the nation's history as 195,000 Americans die of influenza . Over 600,000 people died in what was the worst epidemic in American history . The Population of the U.S. in 1918 was 103,208,000. This is the only year in the last 100 years that the population of the United States actually decreased. ( Source: U.S. Census Bureau)

Influenza Epidemic:

Influenza Epidemic In October of 1918, 851 New Yorkers died of influenza in a single day. In Philadelphia, the city's death rate for one single week is 700 times higher than normal . On November 21, 1918 sirens wailed in San Francisco signaling that it was safe--and legal--to remove protective face masks. 2,122 people in the city had died of influenza . In December, 5,000 new cases of influenza were reported in the city.

Settlement Houses:

Settlement Houses Many of the immigrants who came to the United States during this period of time spoke a language other than English and had customs and religious beliefs that were far different from those of many Americans . Settlement houses began in the 1880s in London in response to problems created when large numbers of people began moving into cities, working in factories, and emigrating from other countries. General Nelson A. Miles

Hull House:

Hull House Settlement houses were often started by middle-class, educated people who moved into poor city neighborhoods in order to provide assistance . By 1900, the U.S. had over 100 settlement houses . The first settlement house in the United States was started in Chicago , Illinois , by Jane Addams and was known as Hull House . Hull House was located in a densely populated neighborhood that had Bohemian, German, Greek, Irish, Italian, Polish, and Russian immigrants.

Hull House:

Hull House Jane Addams and those who lived in Hull House taught immigrants English and what they need to know in order to become citizens. They also helped people find jobs and started a kindergarten and a day care for the children of working mothers. They also established an art gallery and libraries, and offered classes in art, music, and theater. They helped start the Immigrants' Protective League, the Juvenile Protective Association, and the first juvenile court in the nation. Through their efforts, Illinois enacted laws to protect women and children.

EQ. How was the Native American’s way of life changed?:

EQ. How was the Native American’s way of life changed?