2. Westward Expansion

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Settlement of the West:

Settlement of the West Social Studies

PowerPoint Presentation:

2 Samuel Morse Pony Express Telegraph transcontinental railroad gold rush Pacific Railroad Act Union Pacific Omaha, Nebraska Sacramento, California Central Pacific Jupiter William Tecumseh Sherman Irish Chinese Prejudice Sierra Nevada Mountains Promontory Point "Done" golden spike time zone Leland Stanford Settlement of the West steel plow Joseph Glidden Technology Great Plains John Deere Homestead Act Pioneer Homesteader Exoduster Sod Buster barbed wire Kansas Fever Exodus Windmill Nicodemus, Kansas Battle of Little Bighorn Sitting Bull Crazy Horse George Armstrong Custer Chief Joseph Reservation Nez Perce Dawes Act

EQ. What was the California Gold Rush?:

EQ. What was the California Gold Rush?

California Gold Rush:

California Gold Rush On January 24, 1848, James Marshall discovered a few nuggets of gold at a saw mill owned by John Sutter. Over half a million people traveled to California in hopes of striking it rich. Gold mining was hard work that required long days and a lot of patience. Few people actually became rich mining for gold .

Entrepreneurs:

Entrepreneurs An entrepreneur is a person who starts a new business, hoping to make a profit . Lev i Strauss was an entrepreneur from Germany who learned to make sturdy pants for miners out of denim and rivets. These were the world’s first blue jeans .

Boomtowns and Ghost Towns:

Boomtowns and Ghost Towns Boomtowns were communities that sprung up when silver or gold was discovered nearby. Ghost towns are towns that were left empty when the miners moved away. Denver, Colorado, and San Francisco, California, were two towns that began as supply stations for miners and continued to grow into major metropolitan cities. San Francisco 1851

EQ. How were people able to communicate with those living on the opposite side of the country?:

EQ. How were people able to communicate with those living on the opposite side of the country?

Pony Express:

Pony Express The Pony Express was a service begun in 1860 that used a relay of riders on horses to deliver mail. The Pony Express route stretched between St. Joseph, Missouri and Sacramento, California Advertisements for riders read: “Young, skinny, wiry fellows, not over 18. Must be expert riders. Willing to risk death daily. Orphans preferred .” Riders could weigh no more than 125 pounds. Buffalo Bill Cody and Wild Bill Hickok both worked for the Pony Express when they were young .

Pony Express:

Pony Express Pony Express riders who would carry mail 75-100 miles a day. They would change horses every ten to fifteen miles. Once a rider handed off the mail he was carrying to another rider, he would wait for a rider coming from the opposite direction to arrive with mail for him to carry back to the post where he had started . The Pony Express charged $5.00 for each ½ ounce of mail . The Pony Express ceased operation in October of 1861, a year and a half after it started, due to the completion of a telegraph line reaching California .

Pony Express:

Pony Express A Pony Express station in St. Joseph, Missouri

The Telegraph:

The Telegraph Inventors began experimenting with the idea of sending messages over a wire in the mid 1700s. An American scientist invented the first known telegraph in the United States in 1836 . In 1838, Samuel Morse , and his assistant, Alfred Vail, invented a telegraph that was able to transmit messages over long distances. The two men also developed Morse code in order to send messages. On October 24, 1861 the first transcontinental telegraph was completed .

EQ. What was the transcontinental railroad?:

EQ. What was the transcontinental railroad?

Transcontinental Railroad:

Transcontinental Railroad A transcontinental railroad i s a railroad that crosses a continent. The first transcontinental railroad in the United States was completed in 1869. The desire for a railroad that could cross the United States grew after the California gold rush . Route of the first Transcontinental Railroad. Original artwork by DanMS subject to the GNU Free Documentation License

Pacific Railroad Act:

Pacific Railroad Act In 1862 Congress passed the Pacific Railroad Act which offered government loans and free land if two companies would build the railroad . The Pacific Railway Act would guarantee loans of $16,000 on the plains up to $48,000 through mountainous terrain for each mile of track laid . These loans could be repaid over a period of thirty years. The law also provided the railroads ten square miles of land for every mile of track laid. This was later increased to twenty miles of land for every mile of track laid.

Pacific Railroad Act:

Pacific Railroad Act In 1862 Congress passed the Pacific Railroad Act which offered government loans and free land if two companies would build the railroad . The Pacific Railway Act would guarantee loans of $16,000 on the plains up to $48,000 through mountainous terrain for each mile of track laid . These loans could be repaid over a period of thirty years. The law also provided the railroads ten square miles of land for every mile of track laid. This was later increased to twenty miles of land for every mile of track laid.

Union Pacific Railroad:

Union Pacific Railroad The Union Pacific Railroad began laying tracks in Omaha, Nebraska. The railroad eventually employed 10,000 Irish, German, and Italian immigrants, as well as thousands of Civil War veterans.

Union Pacific:

Union Pacific Union Pacific workers laying rails October 1866

Central Pacific Railroad:

Central Pacific Railroad The Central Pacific Railroad began laying tracks in Sacramento, California. Central Pacific supplies came from the East. Until 1868 their materials and machinery were shipped around the southern tip of South America . Work was often delayed because materials were not shipped on time or they were lost due to accident en route. The railroad eventually employed 10,000 Chines immigrants.

Transcontinental Railroad:

Transcontinental Railroad One group that did not want to see the railroad built were the Native Americans who attempted to disrupt the building of the transcontinental railroad. Red Cloud , a Lakota chief, said, “We do not want you here, you are scaring away the buffalo.” William Tecumseh Sherman warned Native Americans saying, “We will build iron roads, and you cannot stop the locomotive.” Federal troops began patrolling the Union Pacific in an effort to protect the workers and the railroad tracks.

Central Pacific:

Central Pacific The train pictured is the Jupiter which carried Leland Stanford, one of the "big four” owners of the Central Pacific, and other railway officials to the Golden Spike Ceremony. Notice the Indians on the hill overlooking the train.

Immigrants:

Immigrants While the Central Pacific had enough work to employ 4,000 workers, at first they were barely able to maintain a workforce of 800 men . Prejudice caused many to believe that Irish workers simply used their wages to purchase alcohol and Chinese workers were unreliable. Definition of prejudice: an unfavorable opinion or feeling formed beforehand or without knowledge, thought, or reason. any preconceived opinion or feeling, either favorable or unfavorable. unreasonable feelings, opinions, or attitudes, especially of a hostile nature, regarding a racial, religious, or national group.

Chinese Immigrants:

Chinese Immigrants At one point, Irish workers became upset over their wages. Crocker recruited some Chinese to take their place. The Irishmen quickly went back to work . At first, the Central Pacific Railroad hired just 50 Chinese workers. Their work ethic was so impressive, however, that many more were hired. Crocker not only sent word all over California that he was hiring Chinese workers, but he also hired companies to advertise for workers in China . A political cartoon from 1882, showing the attitude many had toward the Chinese. The caption reads, "We must draw the line somewhere , you know ."

Chinese Immigrants:

Chinese Immigrants By 1868 there were 12,000 Chinese workers employed by Central Pacific. This was at least 80% of their workforce. "Wherever we put them, we found them good and they worked themselves into our favor to such an extent that if we found we were in a hurry for a job of work, it was better to put Chinese on at once.” -- Charles Crocker

Chinese Immigrants:

Chinese Immigrants

Chinese Immigrants:

Chinese Immigrants

Transcontinental Railroad:

Transcontinental Railroad On May 10, 1869, the Union Pacific and the Central Pacific met at Promontory Summit in the Utah Territory . Over a period of six years, over 1,700 miles of track had been laid . To commemorate the momentous occasion of the transcontinental railroad being completed, a spike made of gold from the mines of California was made. Leland Stanford , President of the Central Pacific, was given the honor of driving the spike into the track . The message “Done” was telegraphed throughout the country . Completion of the first transcontinental railroad in the United States was celebrated at Promontory Summit where the Central Pacific and the Union Pacific met on May 10, 1869 .

Transcontinental Railroad :

Transcontinental Railroad

Transcontinental Railroad:

Transcontinental Railroad Before the completion of the railroad, it would cost as much as $1000 and require months of traveling to cross the United States . In 1870, a ticket from New York to San Francisco on the transcontinental railroad could be purchased for as little as $65. A first class ticket would cost $136.

EQ. What are time zones?:

EQ. What are time zones?

Time Zones:

Time Zones A time zone is a region in which one standard of time is used. There are 24 time zones around the world.

Time Zones:

Time Zones On October 11, 1883, the General Time Convention adopted the current standard time system used in the United States. The convention was called by the nation’s railroads. They needed a more uniform means of governing railroads. Prior to the convention, the time was determined by the position of the sun in the sky. The new system started being used on November 18, 1883. That Sunday became known as the “Day of Two Noons .”

Time Zones:

Time Zones Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) is calculated by + or – hours from the Prime Meridian (0° longitude) which runs through England. UTC is sometimes referred to as “Zulu time .” The Eastern Time Zone is UTC -4 hours which means that our time is four hours earlier than the time in England. Click here to view The Official U.S. Time web site .

U.S. Time Zones:

U.S. Time Zones Atlantic Time Zone (-4 hours) Eastern Time Zone (- 4 hours) Central Time Zone (- 5 hours) Mountain Time Zone (- 6 hours) Pacific Time Zone (- 7 hours) Alaska Time Zone (- 8 hours) Hawaii-Aleutian Time Zone (- 10 hours) Samoa Time Zone (- 11 hours) Chamorro time zone (Guam) (+ 10 hours )

U.S. Time Zones:

U.S. Time Zones

World Time Zones:

World Time Zones

Daylight Savings Time:

Daylight Savings Time Daylight savings time is the practice of moving the clock forward so that there is more daylight of an evening . In the United States, DST starts on the second Sunday of March and ends on the first Sunday of November . Arizona and Hawaii do not observe daylight savings time . It is thought that DST helps conserve energy as there is less need for people to use electric lights . Spring Forward Fall Back

International Date Line:

International Date Line The International Date Line is found approximately at 180° longitude . Traveling east across the International Date Line results in a day, or 24 hours, being subtracted. Traveling west across the International Date Line results in a day, or 24 hours, being added .

International Date Line:

International Date Line

EQ. What made it possible for more settlers to move to the west?:

EQ. What made it possible for more settlers to move to the west?

Great Plains:

Great Plains The Great Plains was a vast grassland found between the Missouri River and the Rocky Mountains that was given the nickname the “Great American Desert.” Up to this time these plains had been sparsely populated by white settlers .

Homestead Act:

Homestead Act In an effort to encourage people to move to the Great Plains, Congress passed the Homestead Act . In 1862 Abraham Lincoln signed this act which gave 160 acres (1/4 square mile) of land to individuals who were at least 21 years old, the head of a household, were either citizens of the United States or individuals who declared their intention of to become citizens, and individuals who had never taken up arms against the United States. Homesteaders were the settlers who claimed land on the Great Plains under the Homestead Act.

Homestead Act:

Homestead Act Homesteaders were required to build a 12 x 14 house, grow crops, and live on the property for five years. Those who purchased land under the Homestead Act would make a payment of $10. They could get the deed to their property after living on it for only six months if they were willing to pay the government $1.25 an acre .

Homestead Act:

Homestead Act By 1895 more than 430,000 people had established homesteads on the Great Plains. Most homesteaders settled in Kansas, Nebraska, and the Dakota Territory. Nearly 300 million acres were given to new settlers on the Plains . Because life on the plains was so difficult, however, many homesteaders did not stay on the land the five years that were required to keep the land .

Pioneers:

Pioneers A pioneer is an early settler of a region . Some of these settlers were African Americans who had recently been freed from slavery and immigrants from France, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and Russia . With the completion of the transcontinental railroad, families were able to obtain farm tools, barbed wire, cloth, and even houses from businesses that sold goods through catalogs.

Sod Busters:

Sod Busters Sodbusters were Great Plains farmers of the late 1800s who had to cut through sod, or thick grass, before planting crops . In 1877 John Deere invented a steel plow that was able to slice through the grass and soil of the Plains . Sodbusters learned that they could use this sod to build their homes in the absence of trees. These houses proved to be cool in the summer and warm in the winter. Unfortunately, insects, rodents, and snakes liked to make their homes in the sod walls .

Sod Busters:

Sod Busters

Sod Busters:

Sod Busters

EQ. What drew African Americans to the west?:

EQ. What drew African Americans to the west?

Nicodemus, Kansas:

Nicodemus, Kansas In 1877, fliers were printed that encouraged southern blacks to leave their homes and come to Nicodemus , Kansas, the most famous town settled by African Americans. These fliers typically exaggerated the abundance of resources and the low cost of land .

Nicodemus, Kansas:

Nicodemus, Kansas The people of this town faced many difficulties including shortages of supplies and having their crops trampled by the cattle of ranchers. The first settlers of the town lived in dugouts much "like prairie dogs" among the grasses of the plains . While Nicodemus did become more prosperous, it eventually began to decline due to the fact that a railroad was never built near the town .

Exodusters:

Exodusters In 1879, around twenty thousand African Americans sailed north on the Mississippi River to Kansas in what came to be known as the Kansas Fever Exodus . These individuals became known as exodusters . Exodus means “a journey to freedom.” These African Americans saw themselves escaping slavery in search of the Promised Land much like the Israelites who had been led by Moses as described in the Bible .

EQ. What inventions made life on the Great Plains possible?:

EQ. What inventions made life on the Great Plains possible?

Hardships on the Plains:

Hardships on the Plains Life on the plains was very difficult. Some of the hardships faced by homesteaders included hostile Indians, diseases, prairie fires, unpredictable weather (blizzards, droughts, violent thunderstorms, etc.), and swarms of grasshoppers and locusts .

Technology on the Plains:

Technology on the Plains Technology is the use of new ideas to make tools that improve people’s lives . Some technology that aided settlers were the windmil l which made it possible to get water from deep underground and barbed wire , invented by Joseph Glidden in 1874, which made it possible to fence in large areas of land in the absence of many trees .

EQ. What did cowboys do?:

EQ. What did cowboys do?

Cowboys:

Cowboys Around 1/3 to 1/2 of all cowboys were African American or Mexican American. Many of the African American Cowboys were former slaves while many of the white cowboys were former Civil War soldiers. It was not uncommon for cowboys to be very young . A cowboy’s life could be adventurous, but it was also exhausting and dangerous.

Cattle Drives:

Cattle Drives By 1865 there were more than 5 million head of longhorn cattle in Texas. Each could be sold for as little as $4 in Texas, but would be worth $40 in the North where cattle were less plentiful. Ranchers realized they could make more money by taking their cattle East by railroad. Cowboys would herd cattle from their ranches in Texas to rail stations. This was known as a cattle drive . Cattle drives would often begin in the spring when the weather was cooler .

Cattle Drives:

Cattle Drives During a cattle drive cowboys might work sixteen-hour days seven days a week. In the 1860s cattle drives would be led by a trail boss and a chuck wagon, which carried food and supplies. The trail boss would be assisted by 8 to 20 cowboys. They would often be responsible for getting 2,000 to 3,000 cattle to the rail station. These herds could sometimes stretch for two miles .

Cattle Drive:

Cattle Drive The routes cowboys took their cattle were known as trails . One of the most famous was the Chisholm Trail , which connected San Antonio, Texas with Abilene, Kansas. Another well-known trail was the G oodnight-Loving Trail which ran from Texas to Colorado. Towns where cowboys drove their cattle to meet the railroad were known as railheads . Railheads would have stockyards where the cattle could be kept while waiting for a train and hotels where weary cowboys could rest. Abilene and Dodge City were two well-known railheads in Kansas .

Cattle Drives:

Cattle Drives The cattle were transported from railheads on the Great Plains to meatpacking plants in Chicago, Illinois. By 1870 Chicago was the world’s largest supplier of beef .

Cattle Drives:

Cattle Drives Cattle drives came to an end in the late 1880s as railroads stretched down into Texas making cattle drives unnecessary .

EQ. How was the Native American’s way of life changed?:

EQ. How was the Native American’s way of life changed?

Buffalo:

Buffalo In the 1860s, Native Americans saw homesteaders’ farms, railroads, and longhorn cattle on the land that had once been their hunting grounds. In 1850 there were fewer than 200,000 white settlers in the West. In 1870 there were nearly 1,400,000 settlers. Hunters shot hundreds of buffalo, and longhorn cattle ate the grass the buffalo needed. By 1890 the number of buffalo had shrunk from more than 15 million to less than 1,000. With the loss of buffalo, Native Americans lost their main source of food, clothing, and shelter.

Native Americans:

Native Americans The Homestead Act gave settlers the right to own their own land. Native Americans believed that the land belonged to all of their people and that it could not be bought or sold. Since the 1800s the government made treaties with Native Americans promising not to take over their lands. Yet there were times the government broke these promises and sold land to settlers.

Native Americans:

Native Americans The government established reservations, or lands set aside for Native American, in an effort to get Native Americans to give up hunting buffalo and begin farming. Most Native Americans did not want to live on reservations. Native Americans fought with settlers and soldiers many times during the mid 1800s. These conflicts are often called the Plains Wars. Native Americans were skilled warriors but usually lost in these clashes.

Native Americans:

Native Americans In the Treaty of 1868, the government had agreed that the territory around the Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming belonged to the Lakota . In 1874 gold was discovered in the Black Hills. Nearly 15,000 miners came to South Dakota in hopes of getting rich. The government offered to buy the Black Hills from the Lakota for $6 million. When the Lakota refused the government’s offer, they were ordered to leave their land and to settle on reservations .

The Battle of Little Bighorn:

The Battle of Little Bighorn In 1874 the Lakota, Cheyenne, and Arapaho Indians united in an effort to protect their territory . Two Lakota chiefs, Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse , led more than 2,000 Native American warriors against Colonel George C uster and 600 soldiers of the Seventh Calvary at the Battle of the Little Bighorn , which has also become known as “Custer’s last stand .” The Battle of the Little Bighorn was the last major victory of the Plains Wars for Native Americans.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Crazy Horse Sitting Bull

Nez Percé:

Nez Percé In 1876 the government ordered the Nez Percé Indians living along the Wallowa River in Oregon to move to a reservation in the Idaho Territory . In June of 1877, U.S. soldiers were sent to relocate the Nez Percé to a reservation. The Nez Percé , however, did not want to leave their land. “It has always belonged to our people,” said the Nez Percé leader Chief Joseph .

Nez Percé:

Nez Percé Chief Joseph and 700 Nez Percé Indians tried to flee from the soldiers. When they were running low on food and supplies they attempted to escape to Canada. When the tribe was within forty miles, however, they found themselves surrounded by American soldiers . I am tired of fighting. Our chiefs are killed…. The little children are freezing to death…. I am tired; my heart is sick and sad. From where the sun now stands I will fight no more forever. -- Chief Joseph

Nez Percé:

Nez Percé Chief Joseph surrendered when he was promised that the Nez Percé would be allowed to return to Oregon. This promise was not kept and the tribe was eventually moved to a reservation in Oklahoma . I believed General Miles, or I never would have surrendered. -- Chief Joseph General Nelson A. Miles

Dawes Act:

Dawes Act In 1897, Congress passed the General Allotment Act sponsored by congressman Henry Dawes of Massachusetts. The Act is also known as the Dawes Act . The law was intended to integrate Native Americans into American society by breaking up Indian tribes . The law provided for the head each family to receive 160 acres of farmland or 320 acres of grazing land. The remaining tribal lands were to be declared "surplus" and sold to non-Indian settlers or the railroads. By 1934, 90 million acres of what was once Indian reservation land was no longer owned by Native Americans.