1. Reconstruction

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Reconstruction Social Studies

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Reconstruction 2 Reconstruction Black Codes Ku Klux Klan Thirteenth Amendment Fourteenth Amendment Jim Crow Laws Segregation Andrew Johnson Abraham Lincoln Freedmen's Bureau John Wilkes Booth scalawags sharecropping carpetbagger impeachment Hiram Revels Blanche K. Bruce Ulysses S. Grant poll tax Fifteenth Amendment

EQ. What significant events preceded Reconstruction?:

EQ. What significant events preceded Reconstruction?

Abraham Lincoln:

Abraham Lincoln Abraham Lincoln first ran for President in 1860. The Republican’s party platform called for an end to the spread of slavery, a Homestead Act that would grant free farmland to those who would help settle the West, and funding for a transcontinental railroad. All of these ideas were unpopular in the South.

Hannibal Hamlin:

Hannibal Hamlin The Republican Party chose Hannibal Hamlin to be Lincoln’s vice presidential running mate in the 1860 election. He was selected because of his strong opposition to slavery, his desire to preserve the Union, and because he was from the Northeast and would appeal to voters there. Hamlin had already served in the U.S. Senate, the U.S. House of Representatives, and briefly as the Governor of Maine. Lincoln won the election and was inaugurated President on March 4, 1861.

Andrew Johnson:

Andrew Johnson When Lincoln ran for reelection in 1864, he chose Andrew Johnson to be his running mate rather than Hannibal Hamlin. By selecting Johnson, Lincoln believed that a greater number of men would consider voting for him. Johnson was a Democrat who had served as a U.S. Senator for Tennessee. He was the only Senator from the South not to resign his seat during the Civil War. He believed in the right to own slaves, but he also wished to preserve the Union.

Civil War:

Civil War On December 20, 1860, South Carolina became the first state to secede from the Union. Ten other southern states would eventually follow it’s lead. Four slave states never seceded: Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland, and Missouri. West Virginia seceded from the confederate state of Virginia and became a state on June 20, 1863. These five states were known as border states.

Civil War:

Civil War The Civil War began on April 12, 1861, when Confederate troops attacked Fort Sumter in South Carolina. Over 618,00 men died during the war. Lee surrendered to Grant at Appomattox Court House, Virginia, on April 9, 1865, bringing an end to the war.

Emancipation Proclamation:

Emancipation Proclamation Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamatio n on January 1, 1863. That on the first day of January in the year of our Lord, one thousand eight hundred and sixty-three, all persons held as slaves within any State, or designated part of a State, the people whereof shall then be in rebellion against the United States shall be then, thenceforward, and forever free … The Emancipation Proclamation did not apply to the border states.

Lincoln’s Assassination:

Lincoln’s Assassination Lincoln developed a plan for rebuilding the South for when the Civil War ended . However, before Lincoln could put his plan into action, he was shot by John Wilkes Booth at Ford’s Theater on April 14, 1865. He died the next morning.

John Wilkes Booth:

John Wilkes Booth On April 15, Booth was treated by Dr. Samuel Mudd for a leg injury. Many believe that Booth broke his leg when he jumped from the President’s box at Ford’s Theater after shooting Lincoln. On April 26, John Wilkes Booth is discovered hiding in a barn in Virginia. He remains in the barn even though Union soldiers threaten to burn it down. Eventually someone starts a fire. As the barn is burning, a sergeant Boston Corbett fires a gun at Booth. He is paralyzed by the shot. Booth died three hours later at the age of 26.

EQ. How did the radical republicans attempt to assist freed black people?:

EQ. How did the radical republicans attempt to assist freed black people?

Radical Republicans:

Radical Republicans The Radical Republicans were a wing of the Republican Party organized around an uncompromising opposition to slavery before and during the Civil War and a vigorous campaign to secure rights for freed slaves during Reconstruction . " Radical Republicans. " Dictionary of American History . 2003. Encyclopedia.com. 23 Jun. 2012 < http://www.encyclopedia.com >.


Freedom? After living in slavery for so long, blacks had to learn to do many of the things that had always been done for them . For many of these “freedmen,” emancipation (or freedom) meant hunger and homelessness .

Freedmen’s Bureau:

Freedmen’s Bureau In 1865 Congress formed the Freedmen’s Bureau in an effort to protect the rights of freed slaves. The bureau was also given the responsibilities of providing former slaves with food, clothing, and medical care, building schools, supervising labor contracts, investigating racial confrontations, and providing legal representation.

Black Codes:

Black Codes In 1865, Mississippi and South Carolina were the first states to pass laws that restricted the rights of freedmen. These laws were known as black codes . Eventually most southern states passed some black codes. In South Carolina, a law required blacks wanting to be employed as anything other than farmers or servants to pay an annual tax that ranged from $10 to $100 .

Black Codes Black codes varied from state to state. Examples of black codes included::

Black Codes Black codes varied from state to state. Examples of black codes included: A black person could not own a weapon other than a shotgun or rifle used for hunting. A black person could not enter a county without a special permit in writing from an employer. A black person was required to be in the regular service of a white person who would be held responsible for the conduct of the black person . Black people could not gather for a public meeting after sunset . A black person could not preach to congregations of colored people, without special permission . A black person could not sell, barter, or exchange merchandise with a county without the written permission of his employer specifying the article.

Freedmen’s Bureau:

Freedmen’s Bureau In 1866 Congress expanded the powers of the Freedmen’s Bureau in an attempt to further protect the rights of freedmen which were being restricted by the black codes. The Freedmen’s Bureau was given the power to try in military courts those individuals who deprived freedmen of their civil rights. The bill became a law in spite of President Johnson’s veto.

EQ. What laws were passed during Reconstruction that benefitted black people?:

EQ. What laws were passed during Reconstruction that benefitted black people?

Thirteenth Amendment:

Thirteenth Amendment The Thirteenth Amendment stated that “Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude… shall exist within the United States…” It was ratified in 1865. This amendment abolished slavery .

The 1866 Civil Rights Act:

The 1866 Civil Rights Act Black people are declared to be citizens of the United States with the right in every state to “make and enforce contracts, to sue, be parties, and give evidence, to inherit, purchase, lease, sell, hold, and convey real and personal property, and to full and equal benefit of all laws and proceedings for the security of person and property, as is enjoyed by white citizens.”

Congressional Reconstruction Acts:

Congressional Reconstruction Acts The first Congressional Reconstruction Act of 1867 organized the south into five military districts. Each military district was administered by a general who was authorized to appoint and remove state officials. Twenty thousand federal soldiers were sent to the South to help keep order. The second Congressional Reconstruction Act of 1867 directed the military commanders to register voters, call conventions, and organize elections.

Congressional Reconstruction Acts:

Congressional Reconstruction Acts The third Congressional Reconstruction Act of 1867 declared existing state governments in the South not legal. The state governments were to henceforth be subject to their respective district military commanders and the U.S. Congress.

Congressional Reconstruction Acts:

Congressional Reconstruction Acts T he Congressional Reconstruction Acts of 1867 made it possible for states to be readmitted to the Union if they met three requirements: R atify the 14 th amendment. Adopt a new state constitution that prohibited former confederate officials from holding office in the state Granted black men the right to vote

Fourteenth Amendment:

Fourteenth Amendment The Fourteenth Amendment made blacks citizens of the United States and guaranteed them the same legal rights as whites. President Johnson attempted to block this amendment, but failed. It was ratified in 1868.

EQ. Why did the Radical Republicans wish to impeach Andrew Johnson?:

EQ. Why did the Radical Republicans wish to impeach Andrew Johnson?

The Impeachment of President Johnson:

The Impeachment of President Johnson The U.S. Constitution specifies that "the President, Vice President, and all civil officers of the United States shall be removed from office on impeachment for, and conviction of, treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors .“ In order for an official to be removed from office, the House of Representatives must first impeach the official. Once this occurs, the official is put on trial in the senate. Removal from office requires a two-thirds vote by the Senate.

The Impeachment of President Johnson:

The Impeachment of President Johnson The Tenure of Office Act was a law that stated that a president could not dismiss appointed officials without the consent of Congress . The law was passed in 1867 in spite of President Johnson's veto. Johnson removed Edwin Stanton, the Secretary of War, from his cabinet as a test of the law. President Johnson considered the Tenure of Office Act unconstitutional.

Congressional Reconstruction Acts:

Congressional Reconstruction Acts On February 24, 1868 , President Johnston was impeached by the House of Representatives after being charged with high crimes and misdemeanors. In the Senate, thirty-five senators found him guilty and nineteen found him to be not guilty. Johnson escaped being removed from office by a single vote. In 1926 the Supreme Court declared the Tenure of Office Act invalid.

Fifteenth Amendment:

Fifteenth Amendment The Fifteenth Amendment said that states could not deny people the right to vote because of race or color. It was ratified in 1870. Note: This amendment did not give women the right to vote .

Hiram Revels:

Hiram Revels In 1870 the first African American was elected to Congress. Hiram R. Revels , a Mississippi minister and teacher, was elected to the Senate. He held the same seat Jefferson Davis had held before the Civil War . In 1874 Blanche K. Bruce , a former slave, was elected to the Senate.

EQ. What was sharecropping?:

EQ. What was sharecropping ?


Sharecropping Sharecropping was a system of farming in which farmers were allowed to rent land and pay the landowner with a share of the crops they raise . The sharecropper would supply the labor, which would generally consist of the farmer and his family . In addition to the land, the landowner would often supply the necessary equipment, animals, and seed.


Sharecropping The landowner would often also provide the farmer with credit to meet the living expenses of his family. The farmer would earn a share (usually half) of the profit made on the crop when it was sold. However, repayment of the money the sharecropper borrowed, and dishonest accounting practices and high interest rates charged by some landowners often significantly decreased the amount of money sharecroppers received.


Sharecropping Improvements in farm technology and a decrease in the amount of land farmed for cotton virtually brought an end to the sharecropping system .


Scalawags Many in the South disagreed with what was happening. Some, however, sided with the Union. These people were called scalawags . These white Southerners supported the federal government during Reconstruction. Picture: Michael Hahn was a scalawag who supported the Union and Reconstruction and worked for black suffrage .


Carpetbaggers Carpetbaggers were Northerners who planned to start businesses in the South. These individuals were called carpetbaggers because they often carried their belongings in suitcases made of carpet . Many Southerners believed the carpetbaggers were merely looking to profit from the South’s misfortune .

EQ. What did white people do in an attempt to regain control of freed African Americans?:

EQ. What did white people do in an attempt to regain control of freed African Americans?


Segregation Segregation was the separation of different people of different races . Jim Crow laws were laws passed by Southern states after Reconstruction that established segregation, or separation of the races. Jim Crow laws prohibited blacks from sitting with whites on trains, attending certain schools, eating at certain restaurants, staying in certain hotels, or going to certain parks or theaters . Picture: Jim Crow began as a comic minstrel-show figure but grew to symbolize the racial prejudice. (The Library of Congress .)

Ku Klux Klan:

Ku Klux Klan The Ku Klux Klan was formed after new state governments had been forced to repeal the black codes . The Ku Klux Klan was a secret society formed by white Southerners to terrorize blacks following the Civil War. Klansmen burned the homes and schools of African American in an effort to regain control over them. They would also attack African Americans who attempted to exercise their right to vote. A cartoon threatening that the KKK would lynch carpetbaggers, Tuscaloosa , Alabama, Independent Monitor, 1868.

Ku Klux Klan:

Ku Klux Klan This cartoon from Harper’s Weekly shows an African American killed by the Ku Klux Klan. The caption reads “One Vote Less.” Cartoon by Thomas Nast in Harper’s Weekly , August 8, 1868.

EQ. What brought an end to Reconstruction?:

EQ. What brought an end to Reconstruction?

End of Reconstruction:

End of Reconstruction By 1870 all of the former Confederate states had fulfilled the requirements necessary for rejoining the United States. Many Northerners did not want to continue paying the taxes necessary for financing the rebuilding the South. In 1877 all remaining federal troops were withdrawn from the South.