7. The Cold War Era

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The Cold War Era:

With Mr. Luzadder 5th Grade Plain Elementary Simpsonville, South Carolina The Cold War Era

Slide2:

Settlement of the West 2

Slide3:

3 Red Scare United Nations NATO Cuban Missile Crisis Richard Nixo n Neil Armstrong Vietnam Conflict Communism Propaganda Arms Race Cold War John F. Kennedy John Glenn Joseph McCarthy Marshall Plan Space race Korean War Berlin Airlift The Cold War Era

The 1950s:

4 World War II The 1950s

Arts & Literature:

Movies Fantasia (1940) Citizen Kane (1941) Lassie Come Home (1942) Bambi (1942) Casablanca (1943) Radio Programs Dick Tracy Book Curious George Comics Superman Batman Captain America Songs “Boogie Woogie Bugle Boy” “I’m Dreaming of a White Christmas” “Zip-A-Dee- Dooh -Dah” “You Are My Sunshine” Arts & Literature World War II 5

What’s New:

1940 Penicillin Morton Salt Tiffany’s become the first fully air-conditioned store. M & Ms 1945 The first atomic bomb was tested 1946 Electric blanket 1947 The Slinky Elmer's Glue 1948 The transistor Polaroid camera 1949 Silly Putty The first atomic clock What’s New World War II 6

Births & Deaths:

1940 Jack Nicklaus is born 1941 Jesse Jackson is born Wilma Rudolph is born Lou Gehrig dies 1942 Muhammed Ali is born Aretha Franklin is born 1943 Arthur Ashe is born George Washington Carver dies 1946 Bill Clinton is born 1947 Steven Spielberg is born Henry Ford dies 1948 Prince Charles is born Orville Wright dies Babe Ruth dies Births & Deaths World War II 7

What Happened:

1940 Winston Churchill becomes prime minister of Great Britain. 1941 Japan bombs Pearl Harbor. 1944 Allied forces land at Normandy 1945 Mussolini is killed Hitler commits suicide Germany surrenders Japan surrenders 1947 The Dead Sea Scrolls are discovered 1948 The Jewish state of Israel is proclaimed The Olympic Games are held in London 1949 NATO is established The Soviet Union tests its first atomic bomb. What Happened World War II 8

U.S. Population:

1850 23,191,876 1860 31,443,321 1870 38,555,983 1880 50,189,209 1890 62,947,714 1900 76,094,000 1910 92,407,000 1920 106,461,000 1930 123,076,741 1940 132,122,446 1950 152,271,417 1960 180,671,158 1970 205,052,174 1980 227,224,681 1990 249,438,712 2000 281,421,906 2010 308,745,538 U.S. Population World War II 9

Average Wages:

1930 $ 1,970.00* 1940 $ 1,725.00* 1950 $ 2,799.16* 1960 $ 4,007.12 1970 $ 6,186.24 1980 $12,513.46 1990 $ 21,027.98 2000 $32,154.00 2010 $40,711.61* http :// www.ssa.gov/oact/cola/AWI.html *Approximated . Average Wages World War II 10

Cost of a New Home:

Median Average 1930 $ 3,845* 1940 $ 3,920* 1950 $ 8,450* 1960 $ 12,700* 1970 $ 23,600 1980 $ 62,900 $ 72,400 1990 $125,000 $151,700 2000 $163,500 $200,000 2010 $218,000 $283,400 http :// www.census.gov/const/uspricemon.pdf *Approximated . Cost of a New Home World War II 11

Average Cost of a New Car:

1930 $600.00 1940 $850.00 1950 $1,510.00 1960 $2,610.00 1970 $3,450.00 1980 $7,200.00 1990 $16,950.00 2000 2010 http ://www.thepeoplehistory.com/ . Average Cost of a New Car World War II 12

Average Cost of a Gallon of Gas:

1930 $ .10 1940 $ .11 1950 $ .18 1960 $ .25 1970 $ .36 1980 $1.19 1990 $1.34 2000 $1.49 2010 $2.78 . Average Cost of a Gallon of Gas World War II 13

Average Cost of a Loaf of Bread:

1930 $ .09 1940 $ .10 1950 $ .12 1960 $ .22 1970 $ .25 1980 $ .50 1990 $ .70 2000 2010 http://www.thepeoplehistory.com . Average Cost of a Loaf of Bread World War II 14

Average Cost of 1lb. Of Hamburger:

1930 $ .12 1940 $ .20 1950 $ .30 1960 $ .45 1970 $ .70 1980 $ .99 1990 $ .89 2000 2010 http:// www.thepeoplehistory.com . Average Cost of 1lb. Of Hamburger World War II 15

Average Cost of a Movie Ticket:

1910 $ .07 1920 $ .25* 1930 $ .35* 1940 $ .24 1950 $ .46* 1960 $ .51* 1970 $1.55 1980 $2.69 1990 $4.23 2000 $5.39 2010 $7.89 . Average Cost of a Movie Ticket World War II 16

Cost of a Postage Stamp to Send 1 oz.:

1930 $ .02 1940 $ .03 1950 $ .03 1960 $ .04 1970 $ .07 1980 $ .15 1990 $ .25 2000 $ .33 2010 $ .44 . Cost of a Postage Stamp to Send 1 oz. World War II 17

Life Expectancy:

Average Life Expectancy Men Women 1900 47.9 49.2 1910 49.9 53.2 1920 55.5 57.4 1930 58.1 61.6 1940 60.8 65.2 1950 65.6 71.1 1960 66.6 73.1 1970 67.1 74.7 1980 70.0 77.4 1990 71.8 78.8 2000 74.3 79.7 2010 http :// www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0005148.html Average Life Expectancy After Age 65 Men Women 1900 + 11.5 + 12.2 1910 + 11.2 + 12.0 1920 + 12.2 + 12.7 1930 + 11.7 + 12.8 1940 + 12.7 + 14.7 1950 + 13.1 + 16.2 1960 + 13.2 + 17.4 1970 + 13.8 + 18.6 1980 + 14.6 + 19.1 1990 + 15.3 + 19.6 2000 2010 http :// www.ssa.gov/history/lifeexpect.html Life Expectancy World War II 18

National Debt:

1850   $ 63,452,773.55 1860 $ 64,842,287.88 1870 $ 2,480,672,427.81 1880 $ 2,120,415,370.63 1890 $ 1,552,140,204.73 1900 $ 2,136,961,091.67 1910 $ 2,652,665,838.04 1920 $ 25,952,456,406.16 1930 $ 16,185,309,831.43 1940  $ 42,967,531,037.68 1950 $ 257,357,352,351.04 1960 $ 286,330,760,848.37 1970 $ 370,918,706,949.93 1980 $ 907,701,000,000.00 * 1990 $ 3,233,313,451,777.25 2000 $ 5,674,178,209,886.86 2010 $13,561,623,030,891.79 National Debt World War II 19

The Cold War Era:

20 The Cold War Era The Cold War Era

Essential Questions:

Essential Questions 21 What concerns did the United States have concerning Europe following World War II ? The Cold War Era

The Cold War:

The Cold War 22 The Cold War was a struggle between the United States and the Soviet Union from the late 1940s to the early 1990s that was fought with ideas, words, and money, but with no direct conflict between the two countries . The Soviet Union was a communist country. Communism is a political and economic system in which the government owns all businesses and land . The Cold War Era

The Cold War:

The Cold War The Truman Doctrine was the strategy that the United States would use to keep communism from spreading . The Marshall Plan was a program under which the United States provided funds to help European countries rebuild after World War II. 23 The Cold War Era

The United Nations:

The United Nations The United Nations is an international organization formed in 1945 to promote peace and end conflict. 24 The Cold War Era

The United Nations:

25 The United Nations Map of UN member states and their dependent territories as recognized by the UN.  Non-members shown: Vatican City, Palestinian territories, Western Sahara.

The United Nations:

26 The United Nations United Nations General Assembly hall in New York City.

The United Nations:

27 The United Nations The interior of the Security Council chambers.  The Security Council is charged with maintaining peace and security among countries.  The Security Council is made up of 15 member states, including 5 permanent members: China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

The United Nations:

28 The United Nations “ Knotted Gun” outside the United Nations headquarters.

The United Nations:

The United Nations The North Atlantic Treaty Organization, NATO , is a military alliance among the nations of Western Europe and the United States in which they agreed to help each other if attacked by the Soviet Union. 29 The Cold War Era

The United Nations:

Reconstruction 30 The United Nations NATO countries in blue (2009)

Essential Questions:

Essential Questions 31 What was the Berlin Airlift? The Cold War Era

The Berlin Airlift:

32 The Berlin Airlift East & West Germany

The Berlin Airlift:

The Berlin Airlift 33 Berlin was located 100 miles inside the Soviet occupation zone. Like the country of Germany, Berlin, the former capital of Germany, was divided into four sectors. A formal agreement was never made with the Soviet Union allowing access to Berlin by road or train . On April 1, 1948, the Soviets began restricting traffic between the American, British and French occupation zones and Berlin. They also announced that no cargo could leave Berlin by rail without the permission of the Soviet commander . The Cold War Era

The Berlin Airlift:

The Berlin Airlift 34 On June 24, the Soviets severed communications between the non-Soviet zones and Berlin. They also stopped all rail and barge traffic in and out of the city. On June 25, the Soviets cut off electricity and stopped supplying food to the civilian population in the non-Soviet sectors of Berlin. Automobiles were allowed to go to the western zones from Berlin, but this required a 14 mile detour to a ferry crossing. The Cold War Era

The Berlin Airlift:

The Berlin Airlift 35 The United States and Great Britain flew over 200,000 flights that provided 13,000 tons of food daily. Seventeen American and eight British aircraft crashed during the airlift.  A total 101 people were killed in the operation . The Cold War Era

The Berlin Airlift:

36 The Berlin Airlift C-47s unloading at Tempelhof Airport in Berlin during the Berlin Airlift.

The Berlin Airlift:

37 The Berlin Airlift Berlin civilians watching an airlift plane land at Templehof Airport in 1948

The Berlin Wall:

The Berlin Wall 38 The Berlin Wall was a barrier built by East Germany that completely enclosed the city of West Berlin, separating it from East Germany, including East Berlin. The wall included guard towers and large concrete walls. East Germany began building the wall in August of 1961. There were eight border crossings between East and West Berlin, which allowed visits into East Berlin by West Berliners, West Germans, Western foreigners and citizens of other socialist countries, if they received the necessary permission. The Cold War Era

The Berlin Wall:

The Berlin Wall 39 While the Berlin Wall existed, around 5,000 people successfully defected to West Berlin. During these same years, at least 136 deaths of people trying to defect from East Germany have been confirmed. The Cold War Era

The Berlin Wall:

40 The Berlin Wall East German construction workers building the Berlin Wall in 1961

The Berlin Wall:

41 The Berlin Wall East German construction workers building the Berlin Wall in 1961

The Berlin Wall:

42 The Berlin Wall Eastern Bloc countries, also known as Communist Bloc countries or Soviet Bloc countries, were Eastern European communist countries that aligned themselves with the Soviet Union.

Essential Questions:

Essential Questions 43 What was the Korean War ? The Cold War Era

The Korean War:

The Korean War 44 The Korean War was a military conflict between the Republic of Korea, backed by the United Nations, and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, backed by China and the Soviet Union. The war began in June of 1950 and an armistice was signed in July of 1953. The Cold War Era

Essential Questions:

Essential Questions 45 What was the Red Scare? The Cold War Era

The Red Scare:

The Red Scare 46 Joseph McCarthy was a senator from Wisconsin.   In 1950 he gave a speech in which he claimed that communists were working in the State Department. His accusation was investigated by a Senate committee but was found to be groundless . Undeterred, McCarthy continued his battle by accusing various public figures of being communists often with little, if any, evidence. The Cold War Era

The Red Scare:

The Red Scare 47 McCarthyism is “t he practice of making accusations of disloyalty, especially of pro-Communist activity, in many instances unsupported by proof or based on slight, doubtful, or irrelevant evidence .” Source: " mccarthyism ." Dictionary.com Unabridged . Random House, Inc. 09 Apr. 2012. <Dictionary.com http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/mccarthyism >. The Cold War Era

Essential Questions:

Essential Questions 48 What was the Cuban Missile Crisis? The Cold War Era

The Cuban Missile Crisis:

The Cuban Missile Crisis 49 The Cuban Missile Crisis was a time of tension between the United States and the Soviet Union in 1962 over nuclear missiles in Cuba . The Cold War Era

The Cuban Missile Crisis:

50 The Cuban Missile Crisis On October 14, 1962, a U-2 spy plane piloted by Major Richard S. Heyser photographed the Soviet military installing nuclear warhead missiles in Cuba.

The Cuban Missile Crisis:

51 The Cuban Missile Crisis Adlai Stevenson shows aerial photos of Cuban missiles to the United Nations in November 1962.

The Cuban Missile Crisis:

52 The Cuban Missile Crisis U-2 reconnaissance photo, Cuba, 1962

The Cuban Missile Crisis:

53 The Cuban Missile Crisis Rudolf Anderson, Jr.

The Cuban Missile Crisis:

The Cuban Missile Crisis 54 On a reconnaissance flight over Cuba to photograph the construction of ballistic missile sites and nuclear storage facilities on October 27, Major Rudolf Anderson, Jr. was shot down by a Soviet SA-2 Guideline surface-to-air missile . He was the only direct human casualty of the Cuban Missile Crisis. He was flying a U-2 spy plane. The Cold War Era

The Cuban Missile Crisis:

55 The Cuban Missile Crisis The Lockheed U-2R/TR-1 is single-seat, single-engine, high-altitude (70,000 feet) surveillance aircraft flown by the United States Air Force.

The Cuban Missile Crisis:

56 The Cuban Missile Crisis The right wing, a portion of the tail assembly, and front landing gear of Anderson's U-2 plane are on display at the Museo del Aire in Havana.

The Cuban Missile Crisis:

57 The Cuban Missile Crisis The engine of Anderson's U-2 plane now on display in the Museum of the Revolution in Havana, Cuba.

The Cuban Missile Crisis:

58 The Cuban Missile Crisis One of the engine air intakes of Anderson's U-2 plane now on display in the the Museo Girón at Girón village in Cuba.

The Cuban Missile Crisis:

59 The Cuban Missile Crisis

The Berlin Wall:

60 The Berlin Wall Rudolf Anderson, Jr. received the first Air Force Iron Cross ever awarded. The Iron Cross is the second highest military decoration that can be awarded to a member of the United States Air Force.

Air Force Cross Citation:

Air Force Cross Citation 61 The President of the United States of America, authorized by Title 10, Section 8742, United States Code, takes pride in presenting the Air Force Cross (Posthumously) to Major Rudolf Anderson, Jr., United States Air Force, for extraordinary heroism in connection with military operations against an armed enemy while serving as Pilot of a U-2 airplane with the 4080th Strategic Reconnaissance Wing, Strategic Air Command (SAC), from 15 October 1962 to 27 October 1962. During this period of great national crisis, Major Anderson, flying an unescorted, unarmed aircraft, lost his life while participating in one of several aerial reconnaissance missions over Cuba. While executing these aerial missions, Major Anderson made photographs which provided the United States government with conclusive evidence of the introduction of long-range offensive missiles into Cuba and which materially assisted our leaders in charting the nation's military and diplomatic course. Through his extraordinary heroism, superb airmanship, and aggressiveness in the face of the enemy, Major Anderson reflected the highest credit upon himself and the United States Air Force. The Cold War Era

Rudolf Anderson:

62 Rudolf Anderson Rudolf Anderson Jr. was born in Spartanburg, SC, on September 15, 1927. He graduated from Greenville High School in 1944. He graduated from Clemson University in 1948 with a degree in textile engineering. He and his wife, Frances, had three children. He was buried at Woodlawn Memorial Park on November 6, 1962

Rudolf Anderson:

63 Rudolf Anderson

Rudolf Anderson:

64 Rudolf Anderson On May 19, 1963, this F-86 Saber Jet, similar to the ones which he flew in Korea, was dedicated in his honor. The Saber Jet was Major Anderson’s favorite plane to fly.

Rudolf Anderson:

65 Rudolf Anderson Dedicated to Major Rudolf Anderson Jr. Sept. 15, 1927 – Oct. 27, 1962 In a period of great international stress he performed his duty of great responsibility with honor. He was awarded the distinguished service medal and gave his life that America could proceed on a course toward peace without the threat of tyrants.

Rudolf Anderson:

66 Rudolf Anderson While on a thirteen mile high reconnaissance mission over Cuba during the Cuban Missile Crisis, On October 27, 1962, Major Rudolf Anderson, Jr., a U-2 pilot, was shot down by a Soviet SA-2 surface-to-air missile. He was the only man of any nationality to lose his life in the conflict and that was the key event that avoided war with the U.S.S.R. Major Anderson was a senior pilot with over 3,000 hours flying time, of which over 1,000 hours were as a U-2 pilot. He served in the Korean War as a reconnaissance pilot and was awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross with two Clusters.

Rudolf Anderson:

67 Rudolf Anderson President John F. Kennedy awarded Major Anderson the Distinguished Service Medal and the first Air Force Cross posthumously. Major Anderson’s shoot down and Supreme Sacrifice over Cuba was particularly significant in had this not happened, experts of the Cuban Missile Crisis agree that the United States would have stumbled into a cold war. On May 19, 1963, this F-86 Saber Jet, similar to the ones which he flew in Korea, was dedicated in his honor and was re-dedicated on its 35 th anniversary, May 19, 1998. The Saber Jet was Major Anderson’s favorite plane to fly.

Essential Questions:

Essential Questions 68 What was the Vietnam Conflict? The Cold War Era

The Vietnam Conflict:

The Vietnam Conflict 69 The Vietnam Conflict was a conflict in the 1960s and 1970s in which the United States sent soldiers to South Vietnam to try to prevent communists from taking over the nation . The Cold War Era

Essential Questions:

Essential Questions 70 What was the Space Race? The Cold War Era

The Space Race:

The Space Race 71 The space race was a race between the United States and the Soviet Union to explore outer space during the Cold War. The Cold War Era

The Space Race:

72 The Space Race John Glenn was the first American astronaut to orbit Earth .

The Space Race:

73 The Space Race Neil Armstrong was an American astronaut who was the first person to walk on the moon, in 1969.

The Space Race:

74 The Space Race Neil Armstrong, Alan Shepherd, Buz Aldrin

The Space Race:

75 The Space Race Neil Armstrong stepping onto the moon’s surface

The Space Race:

76 The Space Race An American astronaut on the Moon