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GIS Geographical Information Systems :

GIS Geographical Information Systems Edexcel Unit 2: David Holmes, Principal Examiner

So what is GIS?:

So what is GIS? “GIS has the ability to store, retrieve, manipulate and analyse a range of spatially related data” Its all about layers of spatial information that can be turned on or off. True GIS is underpinned by a vast dataset with gives the locations (‘vectors’) of particular values. This allows the software then to plot information. Even the free web-based GIS works like this, except that the user has very much less control over the actual software and cannot easily interrogate the data set. So, the GIS user can: ask questions of data related to the map search for patterns and distributions investigate the underlying relationships between different sets of data

GIS and digital maps:

GIS and digital maps There are lots of places that you can experience this on the internet Simple is fine! Lots of resources, e.g. Teachers TV

Consider the GIS spectrum….:

Consider the GIS spectrum….

GPS and GIS is all around:

GPS and GIS is all around Using GPS and GIS to find routes in a car – ‘Tom Tom ’

GIS as a research tool :

GIS as a research tool Google maps/ earth – free online GIS Yellow pins are placemarks Student photos added along transects Coloured transect lines added

GE Graph:

GE Graph GE Graph can be used to create your on ‘ kml ’ overlays of graphical data

Linking PDA, GPS and GIS to produce maps:

Linking PDA, GPS and GIS to produce maps

But there can be issues…..:

But there can be issues….. An operator may choose display options which completely hide or over emphasise spatial patterns. Colour, symbol size, method of data classification, number of classes, data aggregation are all factors which are manipulated in the production of maps. Who created the data set – and why. Age of data?

A question of resolution (raster data):

A question of resolution (raster data) building lake river woodland Real World Low spatial resolution Higher spatial resolution At what spatial resolution do we represent places? What are potential implications of this choice?

Are results always ‘black and white’?:

Are results always ‘black and white’? Burglary hotspots probation Big issues if used to determine practice / policy! Type of burglary? How reported / recorded? Resolution of mapping data

Role of ‘virtual fieldwork’ & GIS:

Role of ‘virtual fieldwork’ & GIS What do we mean by VF? Google Earth (including ‘Street maps’, Mapping software, e.g. Anquet Maps, Memory Map, Aegis Use as a top-up tool Allows more ‘coverage’ – use simulations and suggestions (there is a lot of overlap in the specification). RESOURCE EFFICIENT

Finding out more…:

Finding out more…

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