3rd year secondary Unit4

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Unit: 4 WRITERS AND STORIES :

Unit: 4 WRITERS AND STORIES Prepared by: Mr. Ahmed Saleh El- Shaimaa Secondary School 3 rd Sec.

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Objectives of unit: 4 * New vocabulary and expressions about the importance of literature and education. * Yehia Haqqi , the writer (1905 – 1992). * Expressing opinions. * Passive Voice. الإثنين، 13 محرم، 1437

Vocabulary:

Vocabulary الإثنين، 13 محرم، 1437 competition مسابقة / منافسة develop يطور / ينمى old-fashioned موضة قديمة district حى سكنى / مقاطعة / منطقة routine الروتين establish يؤسس / يثبت / يرسخ attachments مرفقات law قانون منتصف اليوم pioneer رائد custom عادة style أسلوب publisher ناشر prize جائزة

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الإثنين، 13 محرم، 1437 interpret يفسر respected position مكانة / وظيفة محترمة explosion انفجار rules قواعد explode ينفجر obey يطيع report تقرير period فترة organisation منظمة literature الأدب national قومى / وطنى culture الثقافة confusing محير / مُربك career الحياة العملية fixed ثابت / محدد diplomat رجل دبلوماسى average متوسط diplomacy الدبلوماسية insist يصر على diplomatic دبلوماسى article مقالة experiences خبرات / تجارب (الحياة ) extra زيادة disabled معوق

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الإثنين، 13 محرم، 1437 syllable مقطع ( فى كلمة) disability اعاقة editor محرر ( صحفى ) postman ساعى البريد deliver يوصل tour guide مرشد سياحى sound يبدو journalist صحفى collect يجمع lawyer محامى collection مجموعة editor محرر صحفى block of flats عمارة سكنية author مؤلف society مجتمع travel agent وكيل سياحى traditional تقليدى politician رجل سياسة produce ينتج political سياسة product منتج Russian روسى achieve يحقق / ينجز Italian ايطالى achievement انجاز Turkish تركى

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الإثنين، 13 محرم، 1437 a sports teacher مدرس ألعاب tools أدوات regard = consider يعتبر handle يتعامل مع support يؤيد / يدعم skills مهارات article مقالة flexible مرن fiction الأدب القصصى / خيال readily بسهولة / حالا heart transplant زراعة القلب challenge يتحدى / التحدى create يخلق retire يتقاعد beliefs معتقدات usage استخدام behaviour سلوك reinforce يدعم / يعزز / يقوى graduate يتخرج / خريج encounter يواجه / يقابل experience يجرب / يعانى tolerant متسامح widen يوسع emphatic مشارك للآخرين horizons مدارك / آفاق opportunity فرصة revise يراجع park منتزه / مكان انتظار السيارات exactly تماما excellent ممتاز particular area منطقة معينة training تدريب describe يصف soldier جندى

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Dictionary Work a situation in which people or organisations compete with each other competition not modern and not fashionable any more old-fashioned the usual way in which you do things routine (n) Twelve o'clock in the middle of the day. midday something you attach to/send with an e-mail attachment person or company that produces books, magazines, etc., and makes them available for people to buy publisher الإثنين، 13 محرم، 1437

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something that people do in a society because it is traditional custom to make a new product or idea successful develop an area of a city or country district to achieve or give someone a respected position in society or in an organisation establish the system of rules that people in a country or place must obey law one of the first people to do something that other people will continue to develop pioneer a way of doing or making something that is typical of a particular person, group or period style الإثنين، 13 محرم، 1437

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Listening An interview with a writer talking about his writing habits. الإثنين، 13 محرم، 1437

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L Listen and answer the following questions. a What was the first thing the writer wrote ? How successful was it ? b What did the speaker write when he was at university ? c How many words does he try to write a day ? d How many times did he change his last novel before he was happy with it ? الإثنين، 13 محرم، 1437

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L Listen and answer the following questions. a What was the first thing the writer wrote ? How successful was it ? * He wrote a poem which won second prize in a national competition for school children. b What did the speaker write when he was at university ? * He wrote short stories. c How many words does he try to write a day ? * A thousand words. d How many times did he change his last novel before he was happy with it ? * Six times. الإثنين، 13 محرم، 1437

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Interviewer : When did you start writing? Writer : I have written stories and poems for as long as I can remember. Interviewer: What was the first thing you wrote? Writer: When I was seven, I wrote a poem which won second prize in a national competition for school children. الإثنين، 13 محرم، 1437

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Interviewer: When did you start writing stories? Writer: When I was at university I wrote short stories for a student magazine. My head was always full of ideas. While I was finishing one story, I was thinking of the next one. Interviewer: Wasn’t that very confusing? Writer: Not really. I used to write very quickly- I finished most short stories in two or three days. As soon as I’d finished one story, I’d start the next one. الإثنين، 13 محرم، 1437

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Interviewer: Do you still write like that? Writer: No, I haven’t written any short stories for over 20 years. Now I only write novels - they take much longer. Interviewer: So how do write now? Do you have a fixed routine ? Writer: Yes. I write from nine in the morning till three in the afternoon, with a ten-minute break for coffee at midday. I write an average of a thousand words a day. الإثنين، 13 محرم، 1437

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Interviewer: Do you use a computer? Writer: No, I’m old-fashioned - I use a pencil and paper. I’ve tried using a computer, but it gave me a headache. When I’m happy with what I’ve written, my secretary types it onto the computer. My publisher insists that I send everything as an e-mail attachment. الإثنين، 13 محرم، 1437

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Interviewer: And do you check what you’ve written? Writer: Of course. I write one thousand new words a day for a week, then I spend two or three days checking the week’s work until I’m completely happy with what I’ve written. My last novel was changed six times before I was happy with it. Interviewer: Do you show other people? Writer: No, not until a novel’s almost finished. Then I give it to two or three good friends and ask them for their opinions. الإثنين، 13 محرم، 1437

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Interviewer: Do they ever tell you they don’t like what you’ve written? Writer: Yes ! Last year both of the people who read one of my books said they didn’t like how my story ended. So I changed it. Interviewer: That’s very interesting. Thank you for talking to me. Writer : It has been a pleasure. الإثنين، 13 محرم، 1437

Slide18:

New Items to be taught in unit: 4 * New vocabulary and expressions about the importance of literature and education. * Yehia Haqqi, the writer (1905 – 1992). * Expressing opinions. * Passive Voice. الإثنين، 13 محرم، 1437

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Reading Yehia Haqqi (1905 – 1992) الإثنين، 13 محرم، 1437

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Yehia Haqqi was one of the pioneers of modern Egyptian Literature. As well as being an important writer, he was an expert on Arab culture. الإثنين، 13 محرم، 1437

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Yehia Haqqi was born in 1905 in the Sayyida Zeinab district of Cairo. He graduated in law and worked for a short time as a lawyer. In 1929, he began his career as a diplomat and he worked abroad for more than 20 years. The time he spent in France, Italy, Turkey and Libya gave him experiences he later used in his writing. الإثنين، 13 محرم، 1437

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At the same time as he was working , Haqqi was also writing stories. His first short story, published (came out) in 1925, established him as one of the great short story writers of the Arab world. الإثنين، 13 محرم، 1437

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Haqqi always wanted to help poor and disabled people. He had to go to hospital after an earthquake in Cairo, but he gave his bed to a poor person who he thought needed it more. In 1955, he wrote a collection of short stories about the poor and the disabled which won an important prize. Another of his stories, The Postman , was made into a film . الإثنين، 13 محرم، 1437

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Haqqi wrote in a new way about Arab society and customs in the twentieth century. Haqqi was also interested in the Arabic language and he developed a new style of writing which is respected today. الإثنين، 13 محرم، 1437

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As well as writing his own novels and stories , Haqqi also translated Russian, French, Italian and Turkish literature into Arabic. He was a very strong believer in the power of education and supported many young Egyptian writers. الإثنين، 13 محرم، 1437

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Haqqi died in 1992, but is still thought of as the father of the modern short story and the novel in Egypt. الإثنين، 13 محرم، 1437

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Answer questions about the reading passage الإثنين، 13 محرم، 1437

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1-What subject did Haqqi study at university ? الإثنين، 13 محرم، 1437 * He studied law.

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2-Which countries did Haqqi work in as a diplomat ? الإثنين، 13 محرم، 1437 * France, Italy, Turkey and Libya.

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3-Who did he want to help ? الإثنين، 13 محرم، 1437 * Poor and disabled people and also young writers.

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4-For which collection of stories did Haqqi win an important prize ? الإثنين، 13 محرم، 1437 * A collection of short stories about the poor and disabled.

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5-Why is Yehia Haqqi’s writing still important today ? الإثنين، 13 محرم، 1437 * Because he created a new style of writing.

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6-What did Yehia Haqqi know a lot about ? الإثنين، 13 محرم، 1437 * He knew a lot about Arabic culture.

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7-What did he do after an earthquake ? الإثنين، 13 محرم، 1437 * He gave his hospital bed to a poor person.

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8-Which of his stories was made into a film ? الإثنين، 13 محرم، 1437 * “The Postman”.

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Asking for and giving opinion: الإثنين، 13 محرم، 1437

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Giving opinion Asking for opinion I think that .. How do you think (we can reduce pollution)? I don't think that .. What's your opinion about (modern novels)? I'd say that … What do you think I should do (to improve my English)? As far as I am concerned .. What do you think of / about (yesterday's match)? In my opinion .. In my point of view .. الإثنين، 13 محرم، 1437

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Language Notes: الإثنين، 13 محرم، 1437

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عند استخدام the قبل صفات معينة تتحول الصفة إلي اسم جمع:  the poor / the rich / the disabled / the deaf / the blind / the dumb /the sick / the dead / the young / the old / the homeless / the elderly / the unemployed  The poor are in need of our help. = Poor people are in need of our help. الإثنين، 13 محرم، 1437

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تستخدم a قبل كلمات معينة بمعني (في كل أو لكل) وعادة يمكن أن نستخدم مكانها كلمة per  a day / a month / per hour / per person  He earns 500 pounds a month .  He drove 70 miles per hour . الإثنين، 13 محرم، 1437

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 لاحظ عدم جمع الكلمات الآتية إذا جاء قبلها عدد وبعدها اسم: week / second / month / year / minute / hour / day  I usually have a ten- minute break for coffee at midday.  a five- hour meeting  a three- day trip  ولكننا نقول:  The trip took three days .  The meeting lasted for five hours . الإثنين، 13 محرم، 1437

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 وفي حالة وجود كلمة time نستخدم 's) ) في حالة المفرد و (s') في حالة الجمع:  in a week's time  in two years' time الإثنين، 13 محرم، 1437

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لاحظ الفرق بين الكلمات الآتية :  Profession مهنة أو عمل يتطلب قدرا كبيرا من التدريب والتعليم مثل الطب والمحاماة والتدريس  He left the teaching profession to set up his own business.  Work : العمل بصفة عامة ولا تجمع  Peter's work involves a lot of travelling.  I have a lot of work to do.  Work : يقوم بتشغيل آلة مثلا  Do you know how to work (=operate) this coffee machine? الإثنين، 13 محرم، 1437

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 اذا جُمعَت كلمة work يصبح معناها مؤلفات أو أعمال فنية أو أدبية:  a work of art  works of art  Job : وظيفة (تجمع) و تشير إلي عمل منتظم يقوم به الشخص لكسب المال  When she left college, she got a job as a secretary.  She has applied for a job with an insurance company.  Career : المستقبل الوظيفي / الفترة التي يقضيها الشخص في وظيفة معينة  He has a long career in journalism. الصحافة الإثنين، 13 محرم، 1437

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 experience : الخبرة (ما يكتسبه الشخص من معرفة ومهارات من خلال عمل معين – لا تُجمع  experiences : مواقف أو تجارب أو خبرات في الحياة  They offered me the job because I had a lot of experience .  I had some interesting experiences while I was travelling. (= things that happened to me)  experiment : تجربة علمية لإثبات صحة شيء ما أو التوصل لنتائج معينة  Teachers usually carry out simple experiments in the laboratory. الإثنين، 13 محرم، 1437

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 routine الروتين اليومي (ما يقوم به الشخص من أعمال في نفس الوقت يوميا  red tape روتين الإجراءات الرسمية  Dressing is a task which we do every day as a matter of routine .  We must get rid of the red tape in government offices. الإثنين، 13 محرم، 1437

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 mend يقوم بإصلاح شيء تالف أو لا يعمل  amend يقوم بإجراء تعديل أو تغيير في نص أو قانون  The plumber came to mend the burst pipe.  The constitution الدستور was amended some time ago. الإثنين، 13 محرم، 1437

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 win (T/I) يكسـب / يفـوز بـ a game / a race / a medal / a competition / a cup / a match / a contest / support / love / trust / confidence / approval / war / loyalty / friends  Which year was it that Italy won the World Cup ? الإثنين، 13 محرم، 1437

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 beat يهزم / يتغلب علي  Holland beat Argentina by 3 / 1.  gain يكتسب information / knowledge / experience / reputation  gain weight / speed / height  earn money / earn a living  She earns $40,000 a year. الإثنين، 13 محرم، 1437

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 abroad الخارج  aboard علي متن سفينة أو طائرة أو قطار  My father travelled abroad on business.  They finally went aboard the plane. الإثنين، 13 محرم، 1437

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 other than = except ما عدا  rather than = in preference to / instead of بدلا من / مفضلا شيء علي آخر  otherwise = or else وإلا  The form cannot be signed by anyone other than yourself.  I think I'd like to stay at home this evening rather than go out.  You'll have to go now, otherwise you'll miss your bus. الإثنين، 13 محرم، 1437

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Grammar Passive and Active Voice الإثنين، 13 محرم، 1437

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Passive Voice المبني للمجهول Form: Be + P.P. الإثنين، 13 محرم، 1437 The room is cleaned by Mona. Passive Voice Active Voice object verb subject the room. cleans Mona

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Verb to “Be” Tense am – is - are Present Simple was - were Past Simple will / shall be Future Simple am / is / are being Present Continuous was / were being Past Continuous have / has been Present Perfect had been Past Perfect الإثنين، 13 محرم، 1437

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Change into Passive Voice 1- Mona cleaned the room. 2- Mona is cleaning the rooms. 3- Mona has cleaned the room. 4- Mona will clean the room. 5- Mona must clean the room. 6- Mona has to clean the room. الإثنين، 13 محرم، 1437

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Passive Voice Exercise Choose the correct answer الإثنين، 13 محرم، 1437

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1-The Pyramids …………. thousands of years ago. a) built c) were built d) would build b) have been built

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2-Stones …………. on boats and overland. a) carry c) was carried d) were carried b) will carry

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3- You …………. this place at any time of the year. a) can visit c) could be visited d) will be visited b) can be visited

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4- It ………….. that the new library at Alexandria was built in the same place as the ancient library. a) says c) is said d) is saying b) said

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5- People …………….. that the waterwheels at Fayoum Oasis were used to irrigate the fields. a) are known c) have been known d) were known b) know

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6- It …………… that wolves and foxes were hunted in Sinai 3,000 years ago. a) believes c) has believed d) is believed b) believed

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7- The tombs that ……….. into the hills can still be seen. a) will cut c) was cut d) had cut b) were cut

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8- The walls around St. Catherine's Monastery ……………. to protect the treasures inside. a) were building c) has built d) were built b) have built

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9- A lot of projects …………… out at present. a) are carrying c) are being carried d) must carry b) will carry

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10- People …………… to have lived in this place for thousands of years. a) know c) are knowing d) are known b) have known

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11- The men …………... to have robbed the bank. a) believe c) are believing d) will believe b) were believed

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12- Alexandria ………… to be the most beautiful city in Egypt. a) is thought c) was thinking d) thinks b) is thinking

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13- Many things ………………... from supermarkets every day. a) steal c) will steal d) was stolen b) are stolen

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14- Most of the old part of the town ………….. . a) abandoned c) has been abandoned d) abandoning b) will abandon

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15- Hardly any furniture …………… left after the fire. a) was c) are d) has b) were

Exercise Find the mistake in each of the following sentences then write it correctly:

Exercise Find the mistake in each of the following sentences then write it correctly الإثنين، 13 محرم، 1437

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1-The washing machine delivered while I was reading the newspaper. الإثنين، 13 محرم، 1437 The washing machine was delivered while I was reading the newspaper.

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2- I am used to reading at least one book a week, but now I don't read so many. الإثنين، 13 محرم، 1437 I was used to reading at least one book a week, but now I don't read so many.

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3- While I come to school today, I saw an old friend. الإثنين، 13 محرم، 1437 While I was coming to school today, I saw an old friend.

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4- Five years ago, I am used to ride a bicycle. الإثنين، 13 محرم، 1437 Five years ago, I used to ride a bicycle.

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5- As soon as we arrived at school, the first lesson begins. الإثنين، 13 محرم، 1437 As soon as we arrived at school, the first lesson began .

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6- I had my own computer for 3 years now. الإثنين، 13 محرم، 1437 I have had my own computer for 3 years now.

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7- While my sister does her homework, she was listening to music. الإثنين، 13 محرم، 1437 While my sister was doing her homework, she was listening to music.

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8- My parents use to live in a small flat in the city centre when I was at school. الإثنين، 13 محرم، 1437 My parents used to live in a small flat in the city centre when I was at school.

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9- Yesterday evening, we revised for our English test when all the lights went out. الإثنين، 13 محرم، 1437 Yesterday evening, we were revising for our English test when all the lights went out.

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10- Our school was opening exactly 25 years ago today. الإثنين، 13 محرم، 1437 Our school was opened exactly 25 years ago today.

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11- She played the piano since the age of six and she still plays every day. الإثنين، 13 محرم، 1437 She has played the piano since the age of six and she still plays every day.

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12- Our block of flats build five years ago. الإثنين، 13 محرم، 1437 Our block of flats was built five years ago.

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13- Five trees cutting down a week ago. الإثنين، 13 محرم، 1437 Five trees were cut down a week ago.

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14- Yesterday evening, the programme to watch by a million people. الإثنين، 13 محرم، 1437 Yesterday evening, the programme was watched by a million people.

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15- The room clean when the earthquake happened. الإثنين، 13 محرم، 1437 The room was being cleaned when the earthquake happened.

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