Key Note on 18 09 2010

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Key Note Address on Engineers' Day 2010

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BITS, PILANI – K. K. BIRLA GOA CAMPUS “Impending Paradigm Shift in Engineering Sciences and Future Challenges”

Acknowledgement:

Acknowledgement M. K. Deshmukh Professor, Electrical & Electronic Engineering BITS, Pilani, K. K. Birla, Goa-Campus, Goa. BITS, PILANI – K. K. BIRLA GOA CAMPUS 2

Dedicated to:

Dedicated to To professionals engaged with transforming vision into action, for peace and prosperity of mankind . BITS, PILANI – K. K. BIRLA GOA CAMPUS 3

IEI’s Theme for the Year:

IEI’s Theme for the Year Highlights .. preparing for coping up with future technology revolution Likely shifts in engineering profession Preparing for taking on ensuing challenges BITS, PILANI – K. K. BIRLA GOA CAMPUS 4

Sharp focus on..:

Sharp focus on.. Future technological scenario Shifts in Engineering Profession Recommended approach Enablers for technoligcal change Prediction of likely change Future Challenges BITS, PILANI – K. K. BIRLA GOA CAMPUS 5

Focus on future scenario:

Focus on future scenario We are currently at the early but secure and irreversible stages of a remarkable and far reaching technological revolution. BITS, PILANI – K. K. BIRLA GOA CAMPUS 6

Focus on shifts in Engineering Profession:

Focus on shifts in Engineering Profession a science based knowledge intensive high technology area with serious repercussion for technical change, competitiveness, growth in employment, trade patterns, location of manufacturing activities and global division of labour. BITS, PILANI – K. K. BIRLA GOA CAMPUS 7

Focus on engineering profession..:

Focus on engineering profession.. Moreover an essential part of the new development is to make attempts to resolve the pressing environmental problems and preserve the global eco-system. BITS, PILANI – K. K. BIRLA GOA CAMPUS 8

Recommended approach:

Recommended approach an overhauling of our approach to meet the new challenges is much required. The agents of change are driving a new paradigm shift today. The signs are all around us. BITS, PILANI – K. K. BIRLA GOA CAMPUS 9

Focus on enablers:

Focus on enablers The introduction of the personal computer and the internet impacted both personal and business environments, and is a catalyst for a paradigm Shift. BITS, PILANI – K. K. BIRLA GOA CAMPUS 10

Focus on enablers:

Focus on enablers We are shifting from a mechanistic manufacturing industrial society to an organic, service based, information centered society, and increases in technology will continue to impact globally. BITS, PILANI – K. K. BIRLA GOA CAMPUS 11

Focus on prediction:

Focus on prediction New issues are emerging as a sequel of this shift in focus. Classical engineering is to take the back burner. BITS, PILANI – K. K. BIRLA GOA CAMPUS 12

Focus on Challenges:

Focus on Challenges Multidisciplinary Engineering Sciences has created a new demand on the engineering and technological institutions. BITS, PILANI – K. K. BIRLA GOA CAMPUS 13

In this presentation..:

In this presentation.. Technology Revolution & Paradigm Shift Fusion of Engineering and Sciences Impending Paradigm Shift due to Nanotechnology Terawatt Challenge NBIC confluence Future Challenges & Agenda BITS, PILANI – K. K. BIRLA GOA CAMPUS 14

Key Concepts…:

Key Concepts… Technological revolution Environmental problems and preserve the global eco-system Overhauling of our approach Multidisciplinary Engineering Sciences New Challenges BITS, PILANI – K. K. BIRLA GOA CAMPUS 15

Key Concepts…..:

Key Concepts….. Global Impact of technology Organic, service based, information centered society Changing role of conventional engineering Change is inevitable Paradigm shift and Catalysts BITS, PILANI – K. K. BIRLA GOA CAMPUS 16

Key words..:

Key words.. High technology area Technical change Competitiveness Growth in employment Trade patterns Location of manufacturing activities BITS, PILANI – K. K. BIRLA GOA CAMPUS 17

Technology Revolution & Paradigm Shift :

Technology Revolution & Paradigm Shift Historical.. BITS, PILANI – K. K. BIRLA GOA CAMPUS 18

Historical Technology Revolutions:

Historical Technology Revolutions The primary function of culture is to harness and control energy: Leslie White (Anthropologist)

Recent past:

Recent past Indigenous capability Nuclear Energy Technology Space Technology Information Technology Front runner NAPCC (National Action Plan for Climate Change) is in place Renewable Energy Technologies BITS, PILANI – K. K. BIRLA GOA CAMPUS 20

An Example of Technology Shift:

An Example of Technology Shift A single engine propeller aircraft BITS, PILANI – K. K. BIRLA GOA CAMPUS 21

S- Curve for Technology – An Example:

S- Curve for Technology – An Example BITS, PILANI – K. K. BIRLA GOA CAMPUS 22

Transition to new technology:

Transition to new technology Jet aircraft engine technology offered the next step after single-engine propeller technology and Defined new S-curve in air speed The gap between two technologies is referred to shift in technologies (or discontinuity) BITS, PILANI – K. K. BIRLA GOA CAMPUS 23

Gap between two S-Curves is refferred to as discontinuity:

Gap between two S-Curves is refferred to as discontinuity BITS, PILANI – K. K. BIRLA GOA CAMPUS 24

For New Technology:

For New Technology New technology is a slow process, requiring years of incubation The knowledge base and tools must be put into place Every technology has limit The discontinuity means leaving security of old for the uncertain promise of the new. BITS, PILANI – K. K. BIRLA GOA CAMPUS 25

Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam- India 2020 -A Vision for New Millenium:

Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam- India 2020 -A Vision for New Millenium BITS, PILANI – K. K. BIRLA GOA CAMPUS 26

INDIA 2020 A Vision for the New Millemnium:

INDIA 2020 A Vision for the New Millemnium TIFAC- Technology Information, Forecasting and Assessment Council Human resource is the mightier resource Transform ‘developing India’ to developed India’ Standard reference (1998), ignites many minds BITS, PILANI – K. K. BIRLA GOA CAMPUS 27

Technological Revolutions in Past Century:

Technological Revolutions in Past Century

Growth of Technologies and Human Impact (Ref):

Growth of Technologies and Human Impact (Ref) Making and using gear for hunting took about 100,000 yrs The clock, compass, other measurement instruments -100 yrs Computers- 50 yrs Moon landing and tissue and organ transplant- 30 yrs BITS, PILANI – K. K. BIRLA GOA CAMPUS 29

A student with completed StudSat (2010):

A student with completed StudSat (2010) BITS, PILANI – K. K. BIRLA GOA CAMPUS 30

StudSat pico satellite launched by ISRO in LEO (680 Km), 1 Kg (2010):

StudSat pico satellite launched by ISRO in LEO (680 Km), 1 Kg (2010) BITS, PILANI – K. K. BIRLA GOA CAMPUS 31

IIT uses nanotech for cheap textile wastewater cleanup :

IIT uses nanotech for cheap textile wastewater cleanup University: Indian Institute of Technology Madras Invention: IIT have invented a nanocomposite adsorbent that can treat waste water from industries. Cost effective adsorbents are made up of 90 percent graphite and 10 percent carbon nanotubes. Only water molecules pass through carbon nanotubes leaving viruses, bacteria, toxic metal ions out. It is an effective discovery for removing dye molecules and odors from factory wastes. BITS, PILANI – K. K. BIRLA GOA CAMPUS 32

IIT Madras’s Breakthrough:

IIT Madras’s Breakthrough BITS, PILANI – K. K. BIRLA GOA CAMPUS 33

Virus used to make nanoparticles:

Virus used to make nanoparticles Institute: John Innes Centre, UK Concept: By making use of mosaic virus that infects black-eyed pea, scientists have succeeded in creating electronically active nanoparticles . Researchers attached approximately 240 iron-containing compounds to amino acids present on the surface of the isolated virus. With the addition of compounds, nanoparticles became like molecular capacitor, capable of storing electronic charge. According to researchers, nanoparticles have great future prospects in the creation of tiny electrical devices. BITS, PILANI – K. K. BIRLA GOA CAMPUS 34

Virus used to make nanoparticle:

Virus used to make nanoparticle BITS, PILANI – K. K. BIRLA GOA CAMPUS 35

India Today:

India Today Securing position in global market Using instruments of Kyoto Protocol NAPCC in place CDM, JI and IET JNNSM – three phases 2022 Realize vision for energy security and self-sufficiency BITS, PILANI – K. K. BIRLA GOA CAMPUS 36

Example of Paradigm shift:

Example of Paradigm shift Microelectronics BITS, PILANI – K. K. BIRLA GOA CAMPUS 37

Gordon E. Moore: Moore’s Law (1965):

Gordon E. Moore: Moore’s Law (1965) BITS, PILANI – K. K. BIRLA GOA CAMPUS 38

Moore’s Law explained:

Moore’s Law explained BITS, PILANI – K. K. BIRLA GOA CAMPUS 39

Moore’s Law:

Moore’s Law BITS, PILANI – K. K. BIRLA GOA CAMPUS 40

Saturation Limit:

Saturation Limit Traditional chip expected to reach some fundamental physical limits by 2017 Higher operating temperature Fabrication of CMOS gate has reached only 3 atom wide Cost of fab doubles every three years Nanoimprint lihtography can reduce cost of fab BITS, PILANI – K. K. BIRLA GOA CAMPUS 41

Future of Electronics:

Future of Electronics The use of nanotechnology should remove physical limits on size and thus shrink the devices down to the size of a grain of sand. But the performance of such tiny devices could surpass the latest and greatest of today, thanks to Carbon nanotubes. The quantum properties of the tiny nanotubes make them incredibly efficient superconductors and allow electronic devices, even radios, to shrink without any regard to heat dissipation. BITS, PILANI – K. K. BIRLA GOA CAMPUS 42

Engineering Sciences- The Fusion of Sciences:

Engineering Sciences- The Fusion of Sciences Converging Technologies- Nano-Bio-Info-Cognitive Science BITS, PILANI – K. K. BIRLA GOA CAMPUS 43

Richard Feynman, Nobel Laureate (1965):

Richard Feynman, Nobel Laureate (1965) BITS, PILANI – K. K. BIRLA GOA CAMPUS 44 In “ There’s Plenty of Room at the Bottom, ” Feynman’s 1959 talk to the American Physical Society, he introduced the concept of nanotechnology.

Feynman’s Vision (1959):

Feynman’s Vision (1959) Small machines- how to make them Small machines- how to use them Mobile microrobot Quantum computers Electron as calculating machine Heat in a quantum computer BITS, PILANI – K. K. BIRLA GOA CAMPUS 45

Today we see..:

Today we see.. Nanotechnology, with its vast potential is revolutionizing our world. As the name suggests, it involves working with structures of the size as small as 1 to 100 nanometers. (1 nanometer is one billionth of a meter). It includes imaging, modeling and maneuvering of matter at this length scale. BITS, PILANI – K. K. BIRLA GOA CAMPUS 46

We see..:

We see.. Being an emerging diversity of technologies, it is opening up various avenues for scientists to come up with various energy efficient discoveries. As the world is experiencing a surge in nanotechnology, it is assisting in combating climate change, producing renewable energy and developing effective medical treatments. BITS, PILANI – K. K. BIRLA GOA CAMPUS 47

Let’s get small! :

Let’s get small! Rapid advances in the exciting field of nanotechnology are allowing us to shrink everyday objects to previously-unimaginably small dimensions. When objects and distances fall in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers, Newtonian Physics gives way to Quantum Physics - with real-life applications in fields as diverse as medicine, robotics, and even artificial intelligence. BITS, PILANI – K. K. BIRLA GOA CAMPUS 48

Terawatt Challenge:

Terawatt Challenge Problem & Solutions BITS, PILANI – K. K. BIRLA GOA CAMPUS 49

Richard Smalley, Nobel Laureate (1996), discovered C60 Buckyballs:

Richard Smalley, Nobel Laureate (1996), discovered C 60 Buckyballs BITS, PILANI – K. K. BIRLA GOA CAMPUS 50

World Problems (Ref):

World Problems (Ref) Energy Water Food Environment Poverty Terrorism and war Disease Education Democracy Population BITS, PILANI – K. K. BIRLA GOA CAMPUS 51

Future Challenges:

Future Challenges BITS, PILANI – K. K. BIRLA GOA CAMPUS 52

The Terawatt Challenge:

The Terawatt Challenge Where from can we obtain trillions of watts, enough for ten billion people on this planet well before 2050? Look for Clean, sustainable and carbon-dioxide free source that is cheap and abundant. BITS, PILANI – K. K. BIRLA GOA CAMPUS 53

Terawatt Challenge..:

Terawatt Challenge.. Everyday, even though vast amounts of the solar energy go some place else, 165,000 terawatts hit the Earth. We need only 20 terawatts to completely solve the world’s energy needs. This is a vast energy source. We just don’t know hoe to get it cheaply yet. BITS, PILANI – K. K. BIRLA GOA CAMPUS 54

Innovations required..:

Innovations required.. Cost-effective SPV conversion Cost-effective, stable, robust, compact sized batteries for storage of electricity Highly efficient electric power transmission system Nanotechnology will provide solutions to generation, transmission and storage requirements BITS, PILANI – K. K. BIRLA GOA CAMPUS 55

SPV Power:

SPV Power If you’ve ever wondered why solar power isn’t exploited to a greater degree, the answer revolves partly around economics and partly physics. Today’s solar cells are prohibitively expensive, frustratingly fragile, and notoriously inefficient - the average conversion rate from sunlight to energy is a mere 20 percent! BITS, PILANI – K. K. BIRLA GOA CAMPUS 56

NT may provide solution one day:

NT may provide solution one day These concerns may be a thing of the past, however, if a promising new type of solar cell utilizing nanotechnology pans out. Initial trials of a revolutionary solar cell report conversion rates of up to 92 percent! BITS, PILANI – K. K. BIRLA GOA CAMPUS 57

Efficient SPV Cells:

Efficient SPV Cells When installed in large arrays, so-called “nanoantennas” may one day power cars, homes, electronic devices and more. BITS, PILANI – K. K. BIRLA GOA CAMPUS 58

Future of SPV:

Future of SPV Furthermore, the new cells are made of rugged polyethylene inset with tiny gold coils that are active into the near-infrared part of the spectrum, meaning they will still function after dark. When installed in large arrays, so-called “nanoantennas” may one day power cars, homes, electronic devices and more. BITS, PILANI – K. K. BIRLA GOA CAMPUS 59

Future Homes:

Future Homes BITS, PILANI – K. K. BIRLA GOA CAMPUS 60

An Example of Novel Nanomaterial:

An Example of Novel Nanomaterial CNT- Carbon Nanotube BITS, PILANI – K. K. BIRLA GOA CAMPUS 61

Prof. Sumio Iijima, Discovery of Nanotubes:

Prof. Sumio Iijima, Discovery of Nanotubes BITS, PILANI – K. K. BIRLA GOA CAMPUS 62

Carbon atomic structure:

Carbon atomic structure BITS, PILANI – K. K. BIRLA GOA CAMPUS 63

Novel Properties of Nanotubes (SWNT):

Novel Properties of Nanotubes (SWNT) Strength between 50 to 100 times that of steel Elasticity 1 to 1.2 terrapascal (TPa) Thermal Conductivity twice that of conductor- the best conductor Electrical conductivity is 10 9 A/m 2 , 100 times that of Copper Density is half that of Aluminium. Stable at 2700 o C Antioxidants, drug delivery agents and amino acid replacement. BITS, PILANI – K. K. BIRLA GOA CAMPUS 64

Nanotech is the nexus of the sciencces:

Nanotech is the nexus of the sciencces BITS, PILANI – K. K. BIRLA GOA CAMPUS 65

Software and Biology:

Software and Biology Artificial Evolution Genetic Algorithms Neural networks Viral Marketing BITS, PILANI – K. K. BIRLA GOA CAMPUS 66

 Impending Paradigm Shifts :

Impending Paradigm Shifts

Contemporary Technology Shifts :

Contemporary Technology Shifts Communication: Broadband: Photon Law-Bandwidth triples every year IT revolution Satellite programs of various countries Expansive reach of computer and internet access Revolution in communication via optical fiber technology Telephones to pagers to mobiles to smartphones Size of computers getting smaller, fitting into phone Quantum Computing

Contemporary Tech Shifts:

Contemporary Tech Shifts Transport: Intelligent cars Supersonic passenger jets MAGLEV: Evacuated Tube Trains Faster than jets

Impending Paradigm Shift:

Impending Paradigm Shift Health: Nanotechnology replacing chemotherapy and radiation therapy Nanobots for body repair and re-engineering Intelligent prosthetics Nanopumps to deliver drugs intenally Wearable gadgets to monitor health

Impendig Paradigm Shift:

Impendig Paradigm Shift Energy: Bacteria to be used for generating fuel gases like hydrogen and algae to tap solar energy Nanotechnology to reduce operational costs of Solar energy, Geothermal energy, tidal energy Nanotechnology to vastly improve power storage and transmission Power generation being localized more and more, scale reducing

Nanotechnology Solutions..:

Nanotechnology Solutions.. Wind Power : Potential improvement in strength to weight ratio used in blades, enormous improvements on the cards Solar Energy : Improvement in collection and conversion efficiency Green buildings : Ongoing research aimed at covering buildings with nanowire grass that absorbs solar radiation and meets energy requirement of buildings Fuel Cells : Improved efficiency for fuel cells and catalytic converters, in electrosynthesis and electrocatalysis Wave and Tidal Energy: Better anti-fouling paints made using nanoparticles to aid in furthering share of wave and tidal energy Geothermal energy : Tougher materials to cut drilling costs or thermoelectric tunneling for efficient low-grade heat conversion Energy saving through aerogels for better insulation, IR-reflective window coatings, low-grade heat conversion in cars Carbon nanotubes for efficient transmission of electricity

NT Solutions..:

NT Solutions.. Environment Protection: Recycling of batteries, batteries with more charging cycles, concept of super capacitors Reducing engine exhausts b y catalysis Increasing energy production efficiency by maximizing surface area Medicine: Diagnostics: Nanotechnology-on-a-chip, e.g. gold particles for detecting genetic sequences Drug delivery: delivering drugs to specific cells using nanoparticles, reducing side effects Tissue engineering: To repair damaged tissue using suitable nanomaterial-based scaffolds and growth factors

NT Solutions:

NT Solutions Agriculture: Increasing production through precision farming Biosensors to help identify and combat various crop diseases Silver nanoparticles for packaging to increase shelf life of agricultural products Nanosensors to better predict environmental changes and natural calamities Information and communication Memory storage: memristor and Nano RAM Novel Semiconductor and optoelectronic devices e.g. Photonic crystals : Very high bandwidth Quantum computers Displays: Carbon nanotube displays with very high efficiency

Factors Against Nanotechnology:

Factors Against Nanotechnology Cost of research involved S hort-term economics have an overwhelming influence on decision making Nanotechnology is also refining techniques like catalysis for generating fuel from coal: further degradation of environment hence opposition to research Complexity related to intelligent grid Hazards in tapping sources like Geothermal energy Unseen environmental hazards of using nanoparticles Cost of setting up new and untested techniques

NT Challenges:

NT Challenges Convergence and integration- Nano-bio-info-Cogno (NBIC), to improve human performance Most NT applications are realized at the confluence of NT with other technologies Number of disciplines are likely to bring greater unity to science- a reflection of the unity of the natural world. Synergestic combination of following dicsciplines, is expected to bring significant advances Biotechnology and biomedicine, including genetic engineering Information technology, including advanced computing and communications Cognitive science, including cognitive neuroscience and systems approach concepts BITS, PILANI – K. K. BIRLA GOA CAMPUS 77

Integration of NBIC tools:

Integration of NBIC tools Will lead development of fundamentally new products and services such as materials, devices, and systems for use in manufacturing, construction,, transportation,, medicine, emerging technologies and scientific research Fundamental research will occur at the confluence of physics, chemistry and biology, mathematics, and engineering Nanotechnology, biotechnology and information technology will play an essential role in research , design, and production of these new products and services Industries increasingly will use biological processes in manufacturing, e.g.Pharmaceutical genomics, etc. BITS, PILANI – K. K. BIRLA GOA CAMPUS 78

NBIC tools contd..:

NBIC tools contd.. Neuromorphic technology, regenerative medicine, biochips having complex functions, electronic devices having three-dimensional, hierarchical architectures, softwares for realistic multiphenomena, multiscale simulations; processes and systems phenomena from the basic principles at the nanoscale BITS, PILANI – K. K. BIRLA GOA CAMPUS 79

Cognitive sciences Initiative (CSI):

Cognitive sciences Initiative (CSI) Design and manufacture, processes, products, and services, as well as lead to new kinds of organizations. BITS, PILANI – K. K. BIRLA GOA CAMPUS 80

Securing our position in the emerging scenario:

Securing our position in the emerging scenario Short term : Development of Nano-Tools and bulk nano-materials, chemical and biological sensors for medical and diagnostics, larger MEMS- scale devices Medium Term : 2-D, N-electronics, i.e., memory, displays, solar cells, Efficient energy storage and conversion, passive drug delivery BITS, PILANI – K. K. BIRLA GOA CAMPUS 81

Securing our position in the emerging scenario:

Securing our position in the emerging scenario Longer Term :3-D nanoelectronics , N-medicine, therapeutics, and artificial chromosomes, Q-computers and Machine-phase manufacturing The safest long-term prediction is that something we cannot predict. BITS, PILANI – K. K. BIRLA GOA CAMPUS 82

Enhanced role of Professionals:

Enhanced role of Professionals Devote a few days in a month to doing something better; something speedier; something of high-quality; something which will make you proud; something which will make a poorer or suffering person’s life a little better. BITS, PILANI – K. K. BIRLA GOA CAMPUS 83

Enhance Role of institutions.. :

Enhance Role of institutions.. Establish the goals, priorities, and metrics for evaluation for nanotechnology research, development, and other activities Invest in R & D in nanotechnology and related sciences to achieve those goals, Provide interagency coordination of nanotechnoloy R&D and other activities undertaken persuant to the Program. BITS, PILANI – K. K. BIRLA GOA CAMPUS 84

Change is inevitable:

Change is inevitable As a result of global warming trend, catastrophic events are forecasted- events that would definitely ruin our day, maybe even our life, our children’s lives, and their children’s lives too, if we make if that far. Action must begin now! BITS, PILANI – K. K. BIRLA GOA CAMPUS 85

Thank you very much!:

Thank you very much! 86 BITS, PILANI – K. K. BIRLA GOA CAMPUS