Chapter 25 and chapter 26

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Chapter 25 : 

Chapter 25 New Worlds: The Americas and Oceania

Focus of Chapter : 

Focus of Chapter The arrival of Europeans in the Americas had a far more devastating impact then the European domination of the Pacific region

Technical Vocabulary : 

Technical Vocabulary Hispaniola Encomiendas conquistadors Viceroy and viceroyality

The Spanish Caribbean : 

The Spanish Caribbean Columbus uses Hispaniola as base for trading with indigenous people Disappointed there are no spices and silks Recruit locals to mine gold instead Encomienda: Forced labor Plantation-like system

From Mining to Plantation Agriculture : 

From Mining to Plantation Agriculture Indigenous people occasionally rebel, but outgunned by military technology Smallpox epidemics begin 1518 Spaniards launch raids to kidnap and replace workers, spread disease further Indigenous societies disappear by middle of 16th century Limited gold production causes new interest in sugarcane production Requires massive importation of slaves

Conquest of Mexico and Peru : 

Conquest of Mexico and Peru Spanish conquerors (conquistadores) explore other territories Hernán Cortés and 450 men bring down Aztec empire in Mexico (1519-1521) Smallpox destroys besieged Tenochtitlan Francisco Pizarro and 600 men bring down Inca empire in Peru (1532-1533) Calls conference of warring Inca rulers, massacres them all

Spanish Colonial Administration : 

Spanish Colonial Administration Conquests of Mexico, Peru not the result of imperial policy, but inspired greater efforts to expand Spanish empire Spanish administration based in New Spain (Mexico) and New Castile (Peru) Mexico City built atop Tenochtitlan, founded Lima in Peru Viceroys rule, but supervised by local courts called audiencias designed to prevent buildup of local power bases Considerable dispute with Spanish homeland

Portuguese Brazil : 

Portuguese Brazil 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas divides entire (non-Christian) world between Spain and Portugal Portugal claims Brazil Little interest at first, but increases as other imperial powers take notice Exploited for sugarcane production

Settler Colonies in North America : 

Settler Colonies in North America Spanish towns, forts, missions on east coast of North America, some on west coast Dislodged in 17th century by French, English, Dutch mariners Permanent colonies in North America France: Nova Scotia (1604), Quebec (1608) England: Jamestown (1607), Massachusetts Bay Colony (1630) Netherlands: New Amsterdam (1623) English take it in 1664, rename it New York

Colonial Government : 

Colonial Government Exceptionally difficult conditions Starvation rampant, cannibalism occasionally practiced French, English private merchants invest heavily in expansion of colonies Greater levels of self-government than Spanish and Portuguese colonies

Relations with Indigenous Peoples of North America : 

Relations with Indigenous Peoples of North America North American peoples loosely organized, migratory No empires European colonists stake out forested land, clear it for agriculture Increasing number of Europeans arrive seeking ample land: 150,000 from England in 17th century

Conflict with Indigenous Peoples : 

Conflict with Indigenous Peoples Colonists displace indigenous peoples, trespass on hunting grounds English settlers negotiate treaties, poorly understood by natives Military conflict frequent Natives also devastated by epidemic disease

North American Populations : 

North American Populations

The Formation of Multicultural Societies in New Spain : 

The Formation of Multicultural Societies in New Spain Social Classes based on race Spaniards born in Spain (“peninsulares”) People of Spanish heritage born in New Spain (“creoles”) People of Spanish and native parentage (“mestizos”) Descendants of Spaniards and African slaves (“mulattoes”) Descendants of African slaves and natives (“zambos”)

North American Societies : 

North American Societies Higher ratio of French, English female migrants than in South America Higher social stigma attached to relationships with natives, African slaves Fur traders have relationships with North American native women Children: métis

Mining in the Spanish Empire : 

Mining in the Spanish Empire Hunt for gold and silver Conquistadores loot Aztec, Inca treasures and melt them down for their value as raw precious metals More silver than gold Extensive employment of natives Incan mita system of conscripted labor Dangerous working conditions Eventually assimilate into Spanish culture 1/5 reserved for crown (quinta), hugely profitable

Global Significance of Silver : 

Global Significance of Silver Major resource of income for Spanish crown Manila Galleons take it to the Pacific rim for trading Very popular with Chinese markets (will play a role in the Opium War)

The Hacienda : 

The Hacienda Large estates produce products of European origin Wheat, grapes, meat Encomienda system of utilizing native labor force Rampant abuses 1520-1540 Gradually replaced by debt patronage Peasants repay loans with cheap labor

Resistance to Spanish Rule : 

Resistance to Spanish Rule Rebellion 1680 Pueblo Revolt 1780 Túpac Amaru rebellion (Incas) Half-hearted work Retreat into mountains and forests Appeal to Spanish crown 1,200 page letter of Guaman Poma de Ayala, 1615

Sugar and Slavery in Portuguese Brazil : 

Sugar and Slavery in Portuguese Brazil Sugar mill: engenho, refers to complex of land, labor, etc. all related to production Unlike Spanish system of forced native labor, Portuguese rely on imported African slaves Natives continually evaded Portuguese forces Large-scale importing of slaves begins 1580s Working conditions poor: 5-10% die annually Approximately one human life per ton of sugar

Fur Trading in North America : 

Fur Trading in North America Indigenous peoples trade pelts for wool blankets, iron pots, firearms, alcohol Beaver hunts cause frequent incursions into neighboring territories, conflicts European settler-cultivators also displacing natives from traditional lands

Development of Cash Crops : 

Development of Cash Crops Products developed for European markets Tobacco Rice Indigo Cotton Increases demand for imported slave labor European indentured servants, 4-7 year terms Chronically unemployed, orphans, political prisoners and criminals

Export of Tobacco from Virginia : 

Export of Tobacco from Virginia

Slavery in North America : 

Slavery in North America African slaves in Virginia from 1610 Increasingly replace European indentured laborers, late 17th-early 18th centuries Less prominent in north due to weak nature of cash-crop industry Slave trading still important part of economy Also, products made through slave labor Rum, based on sugar from plantations

Missionary Activity in the Americas : 

Missionary Activity in the Americas Franciscan, Dominican, Jesuit missionaries from 16th century Taught Christian doctrine, literacy Due to conquest and plague, many natives in Spanish America concluded that their gods had abandoned them, converted to Catholicism Yet often retained elements of pagan religion in Christian worship

The Virgin of Guadalupe : 

The Virgin of Guadalupe

French and English Missions : 

French and English Missions Less effective than Spanish missions Spaniards ruled native populations more directly Migration patterns of North American natives

Australia and the Larger World : 

Australia and the Larger World Broadly similar experiences to American natives Portuguese mariners long in the region, but Dutch sailors make first recorded sighting of Australia in 1606 Dutch survey territory, conclude that it is of little value Limited contact with indigenous peoples Nomadic, fishing and foraging societies British Captain James Cook lands at Botany Bay, 1770 Convicts shipped to Australia, outnumber free settlers until 1830

Pacific Islands and the Larger World : 

Pacific Islands and the Larger World Manila Galleons interested in quick trade routes, little exploration of Pacific Islands of Guam and the Marianas significant, lay on trade routes 1670s-1680s took control of islands, smallpox destroys local population James Cook visits Hawai’I in 1778 Good relationship with Hawaiians Sailors spread venereal disease Cook not welcomed in 1779, killed in dispute over petty thefts

Chapter 26 : 

Chapter 26 Africa and the Atlantic World

African states, 1500-1650 : 

African states, 1500-1650

The States of West Africa and East Africa : 

The States of West Africa and East Africa Kingdom of Ghana Not related to modern State of Ghana Major Gold Trader Mali Empire, 13th century Songhay Empire, 15th century

Swahili Decline in East Africa : 

Swahili Decline in East Africa Portuguese Vasco da Gama skirmishes with Africans on eastern coast, 1497-1498 1502 returns, forces Kilwa to pay tribute 1505 Portuguese gunships dominate Swahili ports

The Kingdom of Kongo : 

The Kingdom of Kongo Relations with Portuguese beginning 1483 King Nzinga Mbemba (Alfonso I, r. 1506-1542) converts to Christianity Useful connection with Portuguese interests But zealous convert, attempts to convert population at large

The King of Kongo and European Ambassadors : 

The King of Kongo and European Ambassadors

Slave Raiding in Kongo : 

Slave Raiding in Kongo Initial Portuguese attempts at slave raiding Soon discovered it is easier to trade weapons for slaves provided by African traders Dealt with several authorities besides Kongo Kongo kings appeal without success to slow, but not eliminate, slave trade Relations deteriorate, Portuguese attack Kongo and decapitate king in 1665 Improved slave market develops in the south

The Kingdom of Ndongo (Angola) : 

The Kingdom of Ndongo (Angola) Ndongo gains wealth and independence from Kongo by means of Portuguese slave trade But Portuguese influence resisted by Queen Nzinga (r. 1623-1663) Nzinga establishes temporary alliance with Dutch in unsuccessful attempt to expel Portuguese Decline of Ndongo power after her death

Regional Kingdoms in South Africa : 

Regional Kingdoms in South Africa Chieftans develop trade with Swahili city-states 1300: Great Zimbabwe Dutch build Cape Town in 1652, increased involvement with southern African politics Encounter Khoikhoi people (“Hottentots”) British colonies also develop

Islam in Sub-Saharan Africa : 

Islam in Sub-Saharan Africa Pre-Islamic paganism, ancestor worship Islam develops in commercial centers Timbuktu becomes major center of Islamic scholarship by 16th century African traditions and beliefs blended into Islam Gender relations, standards of female modesty

The Fulani : 

The Fulani Movement to impose strict adherence to Islamic norms in Africa 1680 begins military campaigns to enforce sharia in west Africa Considerable influence extends to south as well

Christianity in Sub-Saharan Africa : 

Christianity in Sub-Saharan Africa Like African Islam, syncretic with African beliefs Antonian movement flourishes early 18th century Founded by Doña Beatriz, claims possession by St. Anthony of Padua (13th century Franciscan preacher, patron saint of Portugal) Promotes distinctly African Christianity Jesus a black man, Kongo the holy land, heaven for Africans Christian missionaries persuade King Pedro IV of Kongo to burn her at the stake

Social Change in Early Modern Africa : 

Social Change in Early Modern Africa Trade with Europeans brings new goods to Africa New crops from Americas Manioc becomes staple bread flour Increased food supply boosts population growth despite slave trade

Population Growth in Africa : 

Population Growth in Africa

Foundations of the Slave Trade : 

Foundations of the Slave Trade African slavery dates to antiquity War captives, criminals, people expelled from clans Distinct from Asian, European slavery No private property, therefore wealth defined by human labor potential, not land Slaves often assimilated into owner’s clan

The Islamic Slave Trade : 

The Islamic Slave Trade Dramatic expansion of slave trade with Arab traders New slaves acquired by raiding villages, selling on Swahili coast Arab traders depend on African infrastructure to maintain supply European demand on west coast causes demand to rise again

Arab Slave Trader : 

Arab Slave Trader

The Early Slave Trade : 

The Early Slave Trade Portuguese raid west African coast in 1441, take 12 men Met with stiff resistance African dealers ready to provide slaves 1460: 500 slaves per year sold to work as miners, porters, domestic servants in Spain and Portugal 1520: 2,000 per year to work in sugarcane plantations in the Americas

Slaves at Work in a Mine : 

Slaves at Work in a Mine

The Triangular TRade : 

The Triangular TRade 1. European manufactured goods (especially firearms) sent to Africa 2. African slaves purchased and sent to Americas 3. Cash crops purchased in Americas and returned to Europe

The Atlantic slave trade, 1500-1800 : 

The Atlantic slave trade, 1500-1800

The Middle Passage (Africa-Americas) : 

The Middle Passage (Africa-Americas) African slaves captured by raiding parties, force-marched to holding pens at coast Middle passage under horrific conditions 4-6 weeks Mortality initially high, often over 50%, eventually declined to 5% Total slave traffic, 15th-18th c.: 12 million Approximately 4 million killed before arrival

African Slave Export per Year : 

African Slave Export per Year

Impact on African Regions : 

Impact on African Regions Rwanda, Bugunda, Masai, Turkana resist slave trade Benefit from distance from slave ports on western coast Other societies benefit from slave trade profit Asante, Dahomey, Oyo peoples

Social Effects of Slave trade : 

Social Effects of Slave trade Total African population expands due to importation of American crops Yet millions of captured Africans removed from society, deplete regional populations Distorted sex ratios result 2/3 of slaves male, 14-35 years of age Encouraged polygamy, women acting in traditionally male roles

Political Effects of Slave Trade : 

Political Effects of Slave Trade Introduction of firearms increases violence of pre-existing conflicts More weapons, more slaves; more slaves, more weapons Dahomey people create army dedicated to slave trade

African Slaves in Plantation Societies : 

African Slaves in Plantation Societies Most slaves in tropical and subtropical regions First plantation established in Hispaniola (Haiti, Dominican Republic) 1516 Later Mexico, Brazil, Caribbean and Americas Sugar major cash crop Later: tobacco, rice, indigo, cotton, coffee Plantations heavily dependent on slave labor Racial divisions of labor

Destinations of African Slaves : 

Destinations of African Slaves

Regional Differences : 

Regional Differences Caribbean, South America: African population unable to maintain numbers through natural means Malaria, yellow fever Brutal working conditions, sanitation, nutrition Gender imbalance Constant importation of slaves North America: less disease, more normal sex ratio Slave families encouraged as prices rise in 18th century

Resistance to Slavery : 

Resistance to Slavery Half-hearted work effort Sabotage Flight (Maroon populations) Revolts

Slave Revolts : 

Slave Revolts Only one successful revolt French-controlled St.-Domingue (1793) Renamed Haiti Elsewhere, revolts outgunned by Euro-American firepower

African-American Culture : 

African-American Culture Diversity of African cultures concentrated in slave population Blend of cultures African languages when numbers permit, otherwise European language adapted with African influences Creole languages Christianity adapted to incorporate African traditions

The Abolition of Slavery : 

The Abolition of Slavery Olaudah Equiano (1745-1797), former slave authors best-selling autobiography Eloquent attacks on institution of slavery Economic costs of slavery increase Military expenses to prevent rebellions 18th century: price of sugar falls, price of slaves rises Wage labor becomes more efficient Wage-earners can spend income on manufactured goods

End of the Slave Trade : 

End of the Slave Trade Denmark abolishes slave trade in 1803, followed by Great Britain (1807), United States (1808), France (1814), Netherlands (1817), Spain (1845) Possession of slaves remains legal Clandestine trade continues to 1867 Emancipation of slaves begins with British colonies (1833), then French (1848), U.S. (1865), Brazil (1888) Saudi Arabia and Angola continue to the 1960s

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