FLIP FLOPS & REGISTERS

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FLIP FLOPS & REGISTERS:

FLIP FLOPS & REGISTERS A PRESENTATION BY - AJAY MISHAEL IMMANUAEL 12JJSB6111

WHAT ARE FLIP-FLOPS?:

WHAT ARE FLIP-FLOPS? A flip-flop is a binary cell capable of storing one bit of information. It has two inputs. One for the real value and one for the complement value of the bit stored in it. It stays in a particular binary state until it is directed by a clock pulse to change state. Flip-Flop is an example of a synchronous sequential circuit. Synchronous sequential circuits employ signals that affect the storage elements only at discrete instants of time. Synchronization is achieved by a timing device called a clock pulse generator.

TYPES OF FLIP-FLOPS:

TYPES OF FLIP-FLOPS SR Flip-Flop D Flip-Flop JK Flip-Flop T Flip-Flop

SR Flip-Flop:

SR Flip-Flop It has three inputs labelled S,R and CLK. S- SET R-RESET CLK-CLOCK There is an output Q and sometimes it also includes an complemented output It works as follows If there is no signal at the clock input the output cannot change even if the input values change. The truth table is as follows-

D FLIP-FLOP:

D FLIP-FLOP Its also known as Data flip-flop or Delay flip-flop It has two inputs D and clock. An S-R flip-flop is converted into a D flip-flop by inserting an inverter in between S and R. The D input is sampled during the occurrence of a clock transition. So the state of the flip-flop is 1 when D=1 and 0 when D=0 The truth table is as follows.

JK FLIP-FLOPS:

JK FLIP-FLOPS It is just a refinement of the SR flip-flop. There are no invalid input states or forbidden states. The JK flip-flop is just a SR flip-flop with an extra clock input. This extra clock input prevents the invalid or illegal condition that occurs when both inputs are logic 1’s. There are four states of a JK flip-flop logic 1,logic 0,no change and Toggle. The truth table is as follows.

T FLIP-FLOP:

T FLIP-FLOP It is also known as the toggle flip-flop It is made by combining the J and K inputs in a JK flip-flop to a single input called T. It has only two conditions similar to the D flip-flop. When T input is 0 the clock cannot change the state of the flip-flop. The truth table is as follows.

REGISTERS:

REGISTERS

WHAT ARE REGISTERS?:

WHAT ARE REGISTERS? A register is a group of flip-flops with each flip-flop capable of storing one bit of data. An n-bit register has n-flip-flops in it and is capable of storing n bits of binary information. A register may also contain gates in addition to the flip-flops. The flip-flops hold the binary information and the gates control how new data is transferred into the register. Transferring new data into a register is called loading the register . The loading can be done in parallel i.e all bits at the same clock pulse.

TYPES OF REGISTERS :

TYPES OF REGISTERS 4-Bit Register with D flip-flop . Shift Registers. Shift Register with parallel load . Bi-directional Shift register.

4-BIT REGISTER WITH D FLIP_FLOP:

4-BIT REGISTER WITH D FLIP_FLOP There is a clock input, a clear input and three data inputs. The C inputs keep receiving clock pulses all the time. The clear input is used to clear the register. When the clock pulse occurs and the load input is on, the registers is updated with the new inputs. The clock input uses a buffer to reduce power consumption. The load input determines whether the next clock pulse will accept new data or not.

SHIFT REGISTER:

SHIFT REGISTER A register capable of shifting binary information in one or both directions is called a shift Register. In a shift register there a flip-flops with the output of one flip-flop connected to the input of the next flip-flop. All flip-flops receive common clock pulses that initiate the shift from one stage to the next. There is a serial input and a serial output. The serial input determines what goes into the leftmost flip-flop during a shift operation and serial output is taken from the rightmost flip-flop.

SHIFT REGISTERS WITH PARALLEL LOAD:

SHIFT REGISTERS WITH PARALLEL LOAD Shift Register with parallel load can be used to input the data bits in parallel into the shift register and the data can be taken out in a serial fashion using the shift operation. Such registers can act as a parallel-to-serial converter, where data can be loaded in parallel and shifted in serially. This concept is known as PISO(Parallel-in , Serial-Out).

BI-DIRECTIONAL SHIFT REGISTER:

BI-DIRECTIONAL SHIFT REGISTER A bi-directional shift register is one in which the data can be shifted either left or right. Each right shift operation has the effect of successively dividing the binary number by two . If the operation is reversed (left shift), this has the effect of multiplying the number by two. The register shown below uses D flip-flops and basic gates.

REFERENCES:

REFERENCES www.Wikipedia.org Computer Architecture by M.Morris Mano

THANK YOU:

THANK YOU