Grammar Book

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Grammar Book:

Grammar Book By: Michael Caloca

Table of contents:

Table of contents 1.) Imperfect 2.) Preterite 3.) P or and Para 4.)Stressed possessive adjectives and pronouns 5.) Ud and Uds . Commands 6.)Present subjunctive 7.)Verbs of will and influence 8.)Subjunctive of Words w/ Emotion 9.)Doubt , Disbelief , and denial 10.) Conjuctions

Imperfect:

Imperfect To conjugate regular - ar verbs in the imperfect,drop the ending (- ar ) and add one of the these: aba abas aba ábamos abais aban To conjugate regular - er and - ir verbs in the imperfect, drop the ending (- er or - ir ) and add one of the these: ía ías ía íamos íais ían

Imperfect Cont.:

Imperfect Cont. hablar comer vivir hablaba comía vivía hablabas comías vivías hablaba comía vivía hablábamos comíamos vivíamos hablabais comíais vivíais hablaban comían vivían

Preterite:

Preterite To conjugate regular - ar verbs in the preterite , simply drop the ending (- ar ) and add one of the following: é aste ó amos asteis To conjugate regular - er and - ir verbs in the preterite , simply drop the ending (- er or - ir ) and add one of the following: í iste ió imos isteis hablar comer vivir hablé comí viví hablaste comiste viviste habló comió vivió hablamos comimos vivimos hablasteis comisteis vivisteis hablaron comieron vivieron

Preterite:

Preterite Spock Verbs -Dar/ Ver Ir / Ser Hacer -I iste io imos osteis ieron Fui Fuiste Fue Fuimos Hago Haces Hace Hacemos Hacen Cucaracha: When the verb is conducir producir traducir decir traer are used in the third personal plural take off the “I” in ieron . Preterite : regular - er -í - iste - ió - imos - isteis ieron comí , comiste , comió , comimos , comisteis Preterite : regular - ir verbs -í - iste - ió - imos - isteis ieron viví , viviste , vivió , vivimos , vivisteis , vivieron

Por Y Para:

Por Y Para " Por " Rule : to express gratitude or apology Model: Gracias por la ayuda . (Thanks for the help.) Rule: for multiplication and division Model: Dos por dos son cuatro . (Two times two equals four .) " Por " por adelantado in advance por ahora for now

Por Y para Cont.:

Por Y para Cont. "Para" Rule : to indicate destination Model: El hombre salió para Madrid. (The man left for Madrid.) Rule: to show the use or purpose of a thing Model: El vaso es para agua . (The glass is for water.) " Por " and "para" can also be used in questions. "¿ Por qué ?" means "Why?" (for what reason) while "¿Para qué ?" means "Why?" (for what purpose). ¿ Por qué estudias español ? For what reason do you study Spanish?

stressed possessive adjectives and pronouns :

stressed possessive adjectives and pronouns Masculine Feminine mine mío(s) mía(s) yours ( tú ) tuyo(s) tuya(s) his/hers/its yours (Ud.) suyo(s) suya(s) ours nuestro(s) nuestra(s) yours (vosotros) vuestro(s) vuestra(s) theirs yours (Uds.) suyo(s) suya (s)

Ud. And Uds commands:

Ud . And Uds commands Commands are used when ordering, or telling someone to do something. This is often referred to as the "imperative" form of the verb. Compre Ud . el anillo . (You) Buy the ring. Haga Ud . la tarea . (You) Do the homework. Compren Uds . los libros . (You-all) Buy the books. Hagan Uds . el trabajo . (You-all) Do the work . The formal commands are formed the same way as the present subjunctive: Start with the  yo  form of the present indicative. Then drop the  -o  ending. Finally, add the following endings: - ar verbs: -e (for Ud .), -en (for Uds .) - er and - ir verbs: -a (for Ud .), -an (for Uds .)

Ud. And uds commands cont.:

Ud . And uds commands cont. if the first person singular ( yo ) form is irregular, that irregularity is carried over into the formation of the formal command. Tengan Uds . un buen viaje .  ( yo tengo )Have a good trip.Traiga Ud . el dinero .  ( yo traigo )Bring the money.Venga Ud . conmigo .  ( yo vengo )Come with me. This also applies to stem-changing verbs. Cuente Ud . sus beneficios .  ( yo cuento )Count your blessings.Vuelvan Uds . pronto .  ( yo vuelvo )Return quickly.Pida dinero .  ( yo pido )Ask for money.

Present Subjunctive:

Present Subjunctive Start with the  yo  form of the present indicative. Then drop the  -o  ending. add the endings: - ar verbs: -e, - es , -e, - emos , - éis , en - er and - ir verbs: -a, -as, -a, - amos , - áis , -an Regular - ar verbs like  hablar  ( yo hablo ). hablo  - o = habl habl + e =  hable habl + es =  hables habl + e =  hable habl + emos =  hablemos habl + éis =  habléis habl + en =  hablen Regular -er verbs like  comer  (yo como). como  - o = com com + a =  coma com + as =  comas com + a =  coma com + amos =  comamos com + áis =  comáis com + an =  coman Regular -ir verbs like  vivir  (yo vivo). vivo  - o = viv viv + a =  viva viv + as =  vivas viv + a =  viva viv + amos =  vivamos viv + áis =  viváis viv + an =  vivan

Verbs of Will and influence:

Verbs of Will and influence aconsejar   to advise decir   to tell insistir   en to insist mandar   to order pedir   to ask permitir   to allow preferir   to prefer prohibir   to prohibit, forbid querer   to want recomendar   to recommend rogar   to beg sugerir   to suggest Te   aconsejo que estudies .           I advise you to study.             Le  sugiero que vaya a casa.           I suggest that he go home.             Les  recomiendo que barran el suelo .           I recommend that you sweep the floor.          

Subjunctive of words w/ emotion:

Subjunctive of words w/ emotion alegrarse de * to be glad gustar to like quejarse to complain encantar to be delighted lamentar to regret sentir to feel enojar to be angry maravillar to astonish sorprender to surprise estar contento, enojado, triste, etc. to be glad, angry, sad, etc. molestar to annoy temer to fear tener miedo de/a que to be afraid that extrañarse que to be amazed that    

Doubt, disbelief, and denial:

Doubt, disbelief, and denial Dudo   que él   tenga  mi número de teléfono .  (I doubt that he has my phone number.) No creen   que los extraterrestres   existan .  (They don’t believe that aliens exist.) Niegas   que la camisa  sea  mía .  (You deny that the shirt is mine.) No estoy seguro   que mi madre   venga .  (I am not sure that my mother is coming.) dudar to doubt no creer not to believe no pensar not to think negar to deny no estar seguro not to be sure no suponer not to assume no comprender not to understand no parecer not to seem    

conjuctions:

conjuctions  These conjunctions coordinate two or more words that have the same function. They can put together sentences too. These conjunctions are:                   y  /  and                   e  /  and                  ni  /  neither, nor .    Compré musica rusa   y   turca . /  I bought Russian and Turkish  music . These conjunctions put together words or sentences to express different or conflicting alternatives. These conjunctions are:                   u  / or                   o  / or, either . Tú   o   él cocinarán . /  Either you or he will cook .

Conjuctions cont.:

Conjuctions cont.   Pero  / but                  Mas  / however                     Sino   / but, rather                  Sin embargo  / nevertheless, however                  No obstante  / regardless                    Antes bien  / on the contrary                  Con todo  / even so                  Más bien que   / rather than                   Fuera de  / apart from