lecture new republic 1800-1815

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The Jeffersonian Era : 

The Jeffersonian Era The New Republic, 1800-1815

The “Revolution” (Election) of 1800 : 

The “Revolution” (Election) of 1800 Appeals for unity and end to factionalism

Defining the 1st Amendment : 

Defining the 1st Amendment Jefferson’s letter to the Danbury Baptists: “(the 1st Amendment contains) a wall of separation between church and state.” Old Federalists attacked T.J. for being associated with the ideas of the French Revolution (already radical in the U.S.).

Dispute with Supreme CourtMarbury v. Madison : 

Dispute with Supreme CourtMarbury v. Madison re: “Midnight Appointments” Does SCOTUS have a Constitutional Right to order POTUS to grant commissions? C.J. John Marshall: NO: The Judiciary Act of 1789 giving the court such power was not constitutional Judicial Review: the power of the courts to annul the acts of the executive and/or the legislative power where it finds them incompatible with the constitution.

Jefferson’s Response to Marbury? : 

Jefferson’s Response to Marbury? letter to Spencer Roane (1819): (Marbury gives to one branch alone) “the right to prescribe rules for the government of the others, and to that one too, which is unelected by, and independent of the nation. … The constitution, on this hypothesis, is a mere thing of wax in the hands of the judiciary, which they may twist, and shape into any form they please.”

Louisiana Purchase : 

Louisiana Purchase Does T.J.’s use of Elastic Clause (“necessary and proper”) go against T.J.’s “antifederal”/limited powers philosophy?!

The War of 1812 : 

The War of 1812 Causes: Impressment of >6,000 American-British sailors to fight threat of Napoleon/France U.S.S. Chesapeake affair (1807)--fired on by British ships Attempts to cut off trade with warring factions in Europe--Embargo Act (1807) and Non-Intercourse Act (1809)—failures

Slide 8: 

The Embargo Act (1807)The “OGRABME” Turtle

Presidency of James Madison : 

Presidency of James Madison Jefferson chooses not to run for third term(The Washington Rule) Sec’ty. of State James Madison easily wins the election of 1808

Slide 11: 

The Non-Intercourse Act (1809) Replaced the Embargo Act. Remained U. S. policy until 1812. Unexpected Consequences: N. Eng. was forced to become self-sufficient again [old factories reopened]. Laid the groundwork for US industrial power. Jefferson, a critic of an industrial America, ironically contributed to Hamilton’s view of the US!!!

Slide 12: 

“War Hawks” Henry Clay [KY] John C. Calhoun [SC]

Slide 13: 

Presidential Election of 1812

Slide 14: 

“Mr. Madison’s War” The US was unprepared militarily and financially: Had a 12-ship navy vs. Britain’s800 ships. Revenue from import tariffs declined.

Hartford Convention, 1814 : 

Hartford Convention, 1814 New Englanders Federalists unhappy with war propose to either revise the national constitution, or if that failed, to pull out of the republic Narrowly voted down an outright call for secession War's end caused the Hartford Convention to look like treason and embarrassed the Federalist party (shortly later disbands).

Treaty of Ghent, 1814 : 

Treaty of Ghent, 1814 British released all prisoners and restored all war lands and boats. Britain promised to return captured slaves, but instead a few years later paid the United States £250,000. No real lasting effects.

Slide 17: 

The Battle of New Orleans, 1815

Slide 18: 

Jackson’s Florida Campaigns

Results of the War : 

Results of the War Defeat of effective Indian resistance to western expansion In Northwest, Shawnee leaders Tecumseh and Prophet lost at Tippecanoe Creek in 1811 In Southeast, the Creek nation was defeated by Andrew Jackson at Horseshoe Bend in 1814 gaining their lands in Tennessee, Georgia, and much of Alabama U.S. independence reaffirmed Serious damage to U.S. trade, especially harmful in Northeast Further stimulated production of manufactured goods in U.S., especially in Northeast General agreement to stay out of European affairs