The Changing Habitat after the Exxon Oil Spill.ppt2

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The Changing Habitat after the Exxon Oil Spill : 

The Changing Habitat after the Exxon Oil Spill By Michael Khatskilevich

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Prince William Sound is off the Gulf of Alaska on the south coast of the U.S states. Alaska’s main port of transport is the Valdez port, the area is surrounded by multiple islands such as Cordova and Whittier and the area contains the Alaska native villages of Chenega and Tatitlek. The Chugach is National Forest is the second largest national forest in the U.S. Prince William Sound . The coastline with many islands several of which contain tidewater glaciers. The principle barrier islands forming the sound are Montague Island Hinchinbrook island and Hawkins islands. “James Cook entered Prince William Sound in 1778 and Prince William Sound, in honor of Prince William, who would later become King William IV”.

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Considered to be the #1 spill world wide that has cause problems for our environment.

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(10,800,000 to 32,000,000 US gal), or 257,000 to 750,000 barrels. In 1989, Exxon Valdez oil spill was listed as the 54th largest spill in history.

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When the first rescue arrived they need to wear respirators due to the smell of death

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The heaviest components of the oil cause the most damage polyclinic, aromatic, hydrocarbons, and ph caused the most damage by staying in the environment, by blackening Estes and shore line ecosystems tidals pools by preventing gases exchange and sunlight. The oil can mix deeply into panel of rocks or sandy beaches .

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Although this diagram is difficult to see in this diagram it shows that In 1989 post to the incident. That the six bird types local to the area nearly Had a drastic change in Population . Harlequin duck Common merganser Pigeon guillemot Black legged kittiwake Fork-tailed storm patrol Black oystercatcher

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Harlequin duck Common merganser Pigeon guillemot Black legged kittiwake Black oystercatcher

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Study was done on all the marine bird population had concluded that: Post-spill densities of several species of marine birds were lower then expected When compared to unoiled area the negative effects continues until now which produced a negative effect but to lesser extent Another effect that caused by the shirt for foraging The biggest impact was placed on the animals diving for food. Some species of the bird have not yet recovered reason for lack of recovery may be related to persistent oil remaining. Reduced forage fish abundance . Goldeneye cormorant

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An estimated 250,000 seabirds, 2,800 sea otters, 300 harbor seals, 150 bald eagles, up to 22 killer whales, and billions of salmon and herring eggs died as a direct result of the spill. Which most likely created a bottleneck effect and founder effect to the population due to a catastrophe. Even though there was a major clean up in 1989 to 1992, in 2001 it was found on the shore line and to this day only 2 out of 28 species were fully recovered the bald eagle and the sea otter. Millions upon millions were spent to recover the ecosystem but the results showed that nothing would reset the environment. Although there was a clean up act during 4 people had died which shows that if this clean is so harmful that it kills people how terrible it could be to the wildlife. The results of the exposure to spilled oil has caused coupled oil fate and effects model for the estimation of impacts to habitats, wildlife, and aquatic organisms.

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Sea birds are terribly effected form oil that can penetrate there structure reducing there insulated ability. To regulate temperature is important for this endothermic creatures and if they can not control there temperature which makes it more helpless to floating and flying. This creates a problem to forage and escape from predators. As they try to feed they digest the oil which cause curves feather, kidney damage, altered liver function and digestive track irritation, this cause dehydration and metabolic imbalance.

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Marine mammals mostly experience the same function as the bird. By covering the animals body (otters) fur and interior body temperature fluctuations. Which increase chances for hyperthermia and digestion causes dehydration and impaired digestion.

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Although a majority was cleaned to this day the location is still not manageable for species to live so most animals must migrate to a different location and that the entire clean up was not finished 20 years after the incident.

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The End

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