Science, Technology, and Society section 3 - copy

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Science, Technology, and Society:

Science, Technology, and Society Section 3 Developing Technology

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Scientists have knowledge of scientific principles. Scientists often work in research laboratories doing research. Scientists and Engineers

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A researcher who is responsible for bringing technology to the consumer is called an engineer . Technological problems often create a demand for new scientific knowledge. Example: High gas prices created a demand for more fuel efficient cars. Engineers

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Scientists and engineers work together to find solutions to problems. They use a system much like the scientific method. The first step in finding a technical solution is to define the problem that you are trying to solve. Once the problem is clearly defined, the search for the solution can begin. Finding Technological Solutions

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There are many factors to consider when searching for a solution. Design restrictions for products from outside factors are known as constraints . Examples of constraints include costs, environmental impact, and available materials. Finding a solution

Performance Testing:

Performance Testing When a design is developed it is important to find design flaws as early as possible. This is done by performance testing. The type of performance test used depends upon the design. One way to test the performance of a design is to use a computer simulation . It uses a computer to imitate the process to collect data or to test a process or procedure.

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A prototype is a full-scale model that is used to test a new product such as a new car design or a new airplane product. A pilot plant is a smaller version of the real production equipment that closely models actual manufacturing conditions. Other Types of Performance Testing

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Performance testing is one way to limit system failures. Other ways to limit system failures are to put redundant systems within a design. A control system is a device or collection of devices that monitors a system. Limiting System Failure

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Once a new product is introduced, it is important that a company protect its investment. An intellectual property is any type of creative work that has financial value and is protected by law. A patent is one way of protecting an intellectual property. It is a legal document granted by the government giving an inventor the exclusive right to make, use, and sell an invention for a specific number of years. Intellectual Property

Patent Document:

Patent Document This is the actual patent document issued to my dad and brother for a product they invented called “Slot Wall.” A patent protects their product from anyone who would steal their design and make money from it.

Protecting Property:

Protecting Property Copyright laws protect literary and artistic works Examples: music, poetry and books Trademark laws protect words or symbols that identify brands Examples: Nike Swoosh, Apple logo

Life Cycle Assessment :

Life Cycle Assessment What is a life cycle assessment? Looks at the economics, human impact, energy, materials, and wastes produced at each stage of a product’s life cycle from cradle (design) to grave (disposal). How can we use a life cycle assessment? LCA informs a manufacturer if the environmental stresses associated with their product (or service) is from their supply chain, their factory, consumer use, or final disposal.

  The basic stages of a life cycle assessment are: :

The basic stages of a life cycle assessment are: Design Materials Acquisition Materials Processing Manufacturing Packaging Distribution Use Reuse/Recycling

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Question 1 An engineer is responsible for _______. A. studying a specialized area of science B. using scientific knowledge to solve problems C. teaching society how to use technology in an ethical way D. discovering scientific theories and laws through laboratory research

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The answer is B. Engineers use scientific information to develop products and techniques that solve problems. Answer

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Question 2 _______ are restrictions for products from outside factors. Examples include cost, environmental impact, and available materials.

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The correct answer is constraints. The solution to a problem often is affected by many constraints. Answer

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Question 3 A _______ is a smaller version of production equipment that is used to test manufacturing processes. A. computer simulation B. control system C. pilot plant D. prototype

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Answer The correct answer is C. The pilot plant is part of the performance testing procedure. Performance testing helps engineers identify design flaws.