Coaching Parents in Early Intervention

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Adult Learning Principles: Coaching Parents in Early Intervention :

Gatmaitan, M., & Salverson, D. (2009) 1 Adult Learning Principles: Coaching Parents in Early Intervention Michelle Gatmaitan & Diane Salverson Professional Development Cincinnati, OH 11.12.09

ADULTS AS LEARNERS:

ADULTS AS LEARNERS Approximately 50% of information is retained. 40-80% may be forgotten immediately. Of the 50% recalled information, approximately half of that is remembered wrong (Domoracki & Halter, 2006) Gatmaitan, M., & Salverson, D. (2009) 2

Slide 3:

Gatmaitan, M., & Salverson, D. (2009) 3 Teach Others and/or Immediate Use of Learning 95% Practice with Feedback 75% Discussion Group 50% Demonstration 30% Audio Visual 20% Reading 10% Listening 5% Awareness Level Knowledge Level Skill Development Dale’s Pyramid Dale, 1969

ADULT LEARNING ::

Gatmaitan, M., & Salverson, D. (2009) 4 ADULT LEARNING : “People are more likely to learn new information if it fits within their existing mental framework of knowledge and past experiences” (Rush & Shelden, 2008, p. 3)

COACHING :

Gatmaitan, M., & Salverson, D. (2009) 5 COACHING improve existing abilities, develop new skills, and deeper understanding (Rush & Shelden , 2008, p. 1)

COACHING:

Gatmaitan, M., & Salverson, D. (2009) 6 COACHING Garmston (2005) stated: The term coach describes a person who serves as a “midwife” to another’s perceptions, decisions and cognitive development.

COACHING IS…:

Gatmaitan, M., & Salverson, D. (2009) 7 COACHING IS… a practice to support families of children with disabilities as well as other practitioners in early childhood programs such as a developmental specialist or therapist coaching a child care provider.

WHAT IS THE ROLE OF THE EARLY INTERVENTION PRACTITIONER? as a Coach (Campbell, 1997) working alongside a parent (Hanft & Pilkington, 2000) :

Gatmaitan, M., & Salverson, D. (2009) 8 WHAT IS THE ROLE OF THE EARLY INTERVENTION PRACTITIONER? as a Coach (Campbell, 1997) working alongside a parent (Hanft & Pilkington, 2000)

COACHING:

COACHING Gatmaitan, M., & Salverson, D. (2009) 9 Mahoney & Mac Donald (2005)

“CONSULTING” VS “COACHING” :

Gatmaitan, M., & Salverson, D. (2009) 10 “CONSULTING” VS “COACHING” According to (Gallacher, 1997; Gilkerson, 2004): The purpose of reflection is to build the capacity of another person in such a way as to promote ongoing self-assessment, planning, and knowledge/skill acquisition The reflection process is key; it is what differentiates coaching from consulting ( http://www.coachinginearlychildhood.org )

“CONSULTING” VS. “COACHING”:

Gatmaitan, M., & Salverson, D. (2009) 11 “CONSULTING” VS. “COACHING” Coaching: is an interaction style in any context in which the child participates Consultation: classroom-based interventions

“CONSULTING” VS. “COACHING”:

Gatmaitan, M., & Salverson, D. (2009) 12 “CONSULTING” VS. “COACHING” Consultation indirect model of service delivery Coaching Does not differentiate between direct and indirect (Rush & Shelden, 2008)

COACHING IN EARLY INTERVENTION:

Gatmaitan, M., & Salverson, D. (2009) 13 COACHING IN EARLY INTERVENTION Is a type of help giving practice within a capacity-building model to support people in using existing abilities and developing new skills (Dunst & Trivette, 1996, Dunst, Trivette, & LaPointe, 1992; Rappaport, 1981 Trivette & Dunst, 1998)

COACHING IN EARLY INTERVENTION:

Gatmaitan, M., & Salverson, D. (2009) 14 COACHING IN EARLY INTERVENTION Significant people in a child’s life gain competence when a coach supports them (Fenichel & Eggbeer, 1990)

COACHING IN EARLY INTERVENTION:

Gatmaitan, M., & Salverson, D. (2009) 15 COACHING IN EARLY INTERVENTION Role of the Early Intervention Coach: supportive and encouraging jointly reflect learner apply new skills jointly problem-solve

COACHING IN EARLY INTERVENTION:

Gatmaitan, M., & Salverson, D. (2009) 16 COACHING IN EARLY INTERVENTION What is the Coach’s Ultimate Goal for the Learner? CAPACITY-BUILDING (Rush, Shelden, & Raab, 2008) SUSTAINED PERFORMANCE (Flaherty, 1999; Kinlaw, 1999)

Common Misperceptions About Coaching (Rush & Shelden, 2008):

Gatmaitan, M., & Salverson, D. (2009) 17 Common Misperceptions About Coaching (Rush & Shelden, 2008) Coaching… only works with certain families. is only useful for certain children. is a watered-down approach. doesn’t allow the teacher, therapist, or service provider to “touch” the child. is not a billable service.

More Misperceptions About Coaching (Rush & Shelden, 2008) :

Gatmaitan, M., & Salverson, D. (2009) 18 More Misperceptions About Coaching (Rush & Shelden, 2008) Coaching… is not what parents want. implies a power-over relationship between the practitioner and parent. is a strategy to get people to do what you want them to do. does not allow a service provider to share expertise with the parent or caregiver. is the same as consultation.

The Coaching Process:

Gatmaitan, M., & Salverson, D. (2009) 19 The Coaching Process Consistent with adult learning principles: Start with what the person already knows or is doing Build upon existing knowledge Learner applies the new information and strategies Learner evaluates his/her actions, generates alternatives (Bransford et al., 2000)

The Coaching Process (Hanft, Rush, & Shelden, 2004):

Gatmaitan, M., & Salverson, D. (2009) 20 The Coaching Process (Hanft, Rush, & Shelden, 2004) Initiation/Joint Planning Observation Action/Practice Reflection Feedback * Coaching is a nonlinear process .

The Coaching Process:

The Coaching Process Think of a child and family with whom you are working. Think about a particular outcome that the family desires for this child. As we go through the process of coaching in the next slides, reflect on how you might go through the different stages with the parent or caregiver to support him or her in meeting the desired outcome. Gatmaitan, M., & Salverson, D. (2009) 21

Example:

Example Anne expressed a concern about her son Tim, age 2. Anne would like Tim to be able to express his wants and needs to her and other family members especially at meal time. She would also like to be able to take Tim back into the house after playing in the yard or in the neighborhood park with less frustration, as he throws a tantrum when it is time to come back inside. Below are her 2 desired outcomes: Tim will express his wants and needs at meal time by using a word, a word imitation and/or a hand sign to request more of a preferred food from his mom, dad, or older sister. Tim will be able to walk with his mom, dad, or older sister back into the house after playing outside when it is time to go. Gatmaitan, M., & Salverson, D. (2009) 22

The Coaching Process – Initiation /Joint Planning:

Gatmaitan, M., & Salverson, D. (2009) 23 The Coaching Process – Initiation /Joint Planning What the COACH does: Establish the relationship Clarify the learner’s priorities and outcomes Pair outcomes and strategies Review the previous joint plan, if any Ask what the learner did between conversations What the LEARNER does: Communicate concerns, priorities, and desired outcomes Share what he or she has tried or accomplished (Hanft et al., 2004)

The Coaching Process – Initiation /Joint Planning:

Gatmaitan, M., & Salverson, D. (2009) 24 The Coaching Process – Initiation /Joint Planning What the COACH does: End with a plan of who is going to do what What the LEARNER does: Identify what s/he wants to try or accomplish (Hanft et al., 2004)

The Coaching Process – Observation:

Gatmaitan, M., & Salverson, D. (2009) 25 The Coaching Process – Observation Observation should occur in the context of an everyday activity. What the COACH does: Observe the child and family member interact What the LEARNER does: Observe the coach model a behavior or activity with the child (Hanft et al., 2004)

The Coaching Process – Action/Practice:

Gatmaitan, M., & Salverson, D. (2009) 26 The Coaching Process – Action/Practice What the COACH does Interact directly with the child to model a behavior or activity OR to assess the child in the context of an everyday activity What the LEARNER does Try new ideas or actions related to the outcome (Hanft et al., 2004)

The Coaching Process – Reflection:

Gatmaitan, M., & Salverson, D. (2009) 27 The Coaching Process – Reflection What the COACH does Use reflective questions to assist the parent in analyzing the situation Think of alternatives and actions for improving the parent’s knowledge and skills What the LEARNER does Determine what worked or did not work and why Jointly determine next steps (Hanft et al., 2004)

The Coaching Process – Reflection:

The Coaching Process – Reflection Refer to the CASEtools Framework for Reflective Questioning (Rush, Shelden, & Raab, 2008) . Available online at: www.fippcase.org/casetools/casetool_vol4_no1.pdf (see chart on page 7 for examples of reflective questioning) Gatmaitan, M., & Salverson, D. (2009) 28

The Coaching Process – Feedback:

Gatmaitan, M., & Salverson, D. (2009) 29 The Coaching Process – Feedback What the COACH does Affirm what the parent or caregiver says or does Provide positive feedback Share information to build knowledge and skills What the LEARNER does Provide feedback, ask questions or voice concerns (Hanft et al., 2004)

Why use coaching in early intervention?:

Gatmaitan, M., & Salverson, D. (2009) 30 Why use coaching in early intervention? Relate the coaching process to the concepts of natural environments and embedded learning opportunities (everyday life activities) transdisciplinary team model (supporting other team members, especially the primary service provider, through a coaching process)

What would the coaching process look like in your work/school setting?:

Gatmaitan, M., & Salverson, D. (2009) 31 What would the coaching process look like in your work/school setting? -If you are currently working with a team or group in your work or school setting, brainstorm on the possibilities. - Try a simulation exercise. You might use sample IFSP outcomes of children/families with whom you are working. Find a target outcome and role play the coaching process with your team members. OR, you may also refer to the example of Anne and Tim on slide 22.

References :

Gatmaitan, M., & Salverson, D. (2009) 32 References Bransford, J.D., Brown, A.L., Cocking, R.R., Donovan, M.S., & Pellegrino, J.W. (Eds.). (2000). How people learn: Brain, mind, experience, and school. Washington , DC: National Academy Press. Bruder, M.B., & Dunst, C.J. (1999). Expanding learning opportunities for infants and toddlers in natural environments: A chance to reconceptualize early intervention. Zero To Three, 20 (3), 34-36. Campbell, S. (1997). Therapy programs for children that last a lifetime. Physical and Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics, 7 , 1-15. Dale, E. (1969) . Audio-visual methods in teaching (3rd Edition). New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston. Domoracki, S., & Halter, K. (2006). Two Ohio programs: Providing support to families. Available online at www.infanthearing.org/meeting/.../DomorackiS_EHDI2006.ppt

References :

Gatmaitan, M., & Salverson, D. (2009) 33 References Dunst , C.J., Herter, S., & Shields, H. (2000). Interest-based natural learning opportunities. In S. Sandall & M. Ostrosky (Eds.), Young Exceptional Children Monograph Series No. 2 (pp. 37-48). Denver, CO: Division for Early Childhood of the Council for Exceptional Children. Dunst , C.J., & Trivette , C.M. (1996). Empowerment, effective helpgiving practices and family-centered care. Pediatric Nursing, 22 , 334-337, 343. Dunst , C.J., Trivette , C.M., & LaPointe , N. (1992). Toward clarification of the meaning and key elements of empowerment. Family Science Review , 5, 111-130. Flaherty, J. (1999). Coaching: Evoking excellence in others . Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann. Garmston , R. (2005) Presenter's fieldbook : A practical guide . Norwood, MA:Christopher -Gordon Publishers, Inc. Hanft , B.E., & Pilkington, K. O. (2000). Therapy in natural environments: The means or end goal for early intervention? Infants and Young Children, 12 (4), 1-13.

References:

References Hanft, B.E., Rush, D.D., & Shelden, M.L. (2004). Coaching families and colleagues in early childhood. Baltimore, MD: Brookes. Kinlaw, D.C. (1999). Coaching for commitment: Interpersonal strategies for obtaining superior performance from individuals and teams . San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass/Pfeiffer. Rappaport, J. (1981). In praise of paradox: A social policy of empowerment over prevention. American Journal of Community Psychology, 9 , 1-25. Rush , D,D., & Shelden, M.L. (2008). Common misperceptions about coaching in early intervention. CASEinPoint, 4 (1), 1-4. Trivette, C.M. & Dunst, C.J. (1998, December). Family-centered helpgiving practices. Paper presented at the 14 th Annual Division of Early Childhood International Conference on Children with Special Needs, Chicago, Illinois. Gatmaitan, M., & Salverson, D. (2009) 34

“A teacher is one who makes himself [or herself] progressively unnecessary.” - Thomas Carruthers:

Gatmaitan, M., & Salverson, D. (2009) 35 “ A teacher is one who makes himself [or herself] progressively unnecessary.” - Thomas Carruthers

Contact Information:

Contact Information Michelle Gatmaitan, M.Ed. Doctoral Student Early Childhood Intervention Services Kent State University [email protected] Diane Salverson, M.S.Ed. Doctoral Student Early Childhood Intervention Services Kent State University [email protected] Gatmaitan, M., & Salverson, D. (2009) 36

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