Lexical Approach

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Presentation Description

Introduction to the key features of the lexical approach.

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Presentation Transcript

The Lexical Approach : 

The Lexical Approach Enver Yakabov Steve Neufeld

Background Knowledge : 

Background Knowledge The Lexical Approach (LA) was published in 1993. It offered a completely new approach of treating vocabulary and grammar.

Standard View : 

Standard View Language = Vocabulary + Grammar

The Lexical Approach : 

The Lexical Approach Language consists of CHUNKS LA highlights the combinations which are not only possible but highly likely.

The Lexical Approach : 

The Lexical Approach 4 basic chunks: Words Fixed Expressions Semi-fixed Expressions Collocations

Words : 

Words The largest category Stand ALONE Listed in dictionaries

Words : 

Words Example: I go to school by car / train / bus / etc Could you pass the ……., please?

Words : 

Words It is important to distinguish between SINGLE And MULTI WORD items.

Words : 

Words Example: By the way / road* / route* To and fro On the other hand / arm* / leg*

Fixed Expressions : 

Fixed Expressions Social greetings ( Good morning! It’s a lovely morning, isn’t it? Happy New Year!) Politeness phrases (No, thank you, I am fine. I will have to be going.) Idioms (It cost me an arm and a leg. It’s raining cats ans dogs.)

Semi-fixed Expressions : 

Semi-fixed Expressions Minimal variation ( It’s / That’s not my fault) Simple Slot (Could you pass ……., please?) Sentence Heads ( What was really interesting / surpising / annoying was … .)

Semi-fixed Expressions : 

Semi-fixed Expressions Example: Academic paper There are broadly speaking two views of … The more traditional , usually associated with … and his / her collegues, suggests that …, while the more progressive view, associated with … suggests … . In this paper I wish to suggest a third position which suggests … .

Slide 14: 

Collocations

Collocations : 

Collocations Task 1: His books commanded criticism from many people. There was a high difference between the two teams. He had been found guilty of some slight crimes.

Collocations : 

Collocations There are some combinations of words which co-occur naturally with greater than random frequency.

Collocations : 

Collocations Thus, learning collocations is a matter of OBSERVATION and PRACTICE

Collocations : 

Collocations Adverse Blunt Constant + CRITICISM Helpful Severe

Collocations : 

Collocations Attract Be subject to Deserve + (ADJ) CRITICISM React to Provoke

Collocations : 

Collocations De-lexicalised words: Make (a suggestion, an anouncement, a call etc.) Have (a break, meal, trouble etc.) Take ( measures, your time, advice etc.)

Collocations : 

Collocations Lingusitic, not thematic Ex: Would you like a coffee? No thanks, I’ve had one. No thanks, I’ve drunk one.

Collocations : 

Collocations Bus stop Taxi rank Train station

Collocations : 

Collocations 2. Arbitrary Tall building/ high building Tall boy / high boy* Look at a person/ problem Gaze at a person/ problem*

Collocations : 

Collocations Student: Why, teacher? Teacher: Because!!!

Collocations : 

Collocations Metaphors: Physics: Newton’s Law of universal gravitation Marriage contract

Collocations : 

Collocations 3. Partnerships and Relations Frequency ( “The” – the cat, the car, the soil, the advice) Strength (Signature dish, square meal, a nice day, a good chance etc.)

Collocations : 

Collocations Pedagogic value of recording, noticing and learning words together with partner words.

Collocations : 

Collocations Words are not used ALONE It is more efficient to learn THE WHOLE and break it into parts than vice versa Improves FLUENCY and NATIVELIKENESS

ANY QUESTIONS ??? : 

ANY QUESTIONS ???

From THEORY to PRACTICE : 

From THEORY to PRACTICE