4-H Public Speaking

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4-H Public Speaking:

4-H Public Speaking Adapted from materials provided by Allyn and Bacon

Public Speaking Produces Anxiety in Most People:

Public Speaking Produces Anxiety in Most People 3. Death 2. Snakes 1. Public Speaking People’s Biggest Fears

Overcoming Speech Anxiety:

Overcoming Speech Anxiety Acknowledge Your Fear Act Confident Channel Nervous Energy

Overcoming Speech Anxiety (con’t):

Overcoming Speech Anxiety (con’t) Practice, Practice, Practice Simulate Setting at Home Ask Friends to Be Practice Audience

Overcoming Speech Anxiety (con’t):

Overcoming Speech Anxiety (con’t) Visualize Your Success Use Deep-breathing Techniques Focus on Message, not Fear Give Yourself a Mental Pep Talk

Understand Audience and Listening:

Understand Audience and Listening People Think Faster Than Hear Have Short Attention Span Jump to Conclusions Easily Distracted

Listening Remedies:

Listening Remedies Keep Speech Focused Divide Speech into Compact Segments Analyze Audience Carefully Adapt to Situation

Understand Audience Memory:

Understand Audience Memory Time Amount of Speech Remembered + + -

Understand The Speech Context:

Understand The Speech Context Audience Setting

Context – :

Context –

The Audience:

The Audience Size Demographics Beliefs and Values Receptive/Antagonistic

Context - The Setting:

Context - The Setting Indoor/Outdoor Size and Shape of Room Arrangement of Seating Equipment Available Lighting Acoustics

Understand & Define Your Purpose:

Understand & Define Your Purpose Inform Inspire / Persuade Entertain Introduce Accept Pay Tribute

Understand the Speech Making Process:

Understand the Speech Making Process Choosing/Narrowing a Topic Researching Topic Organizing Your Speech Developing an Outline Rehearsing Speech Delivering Speech

Choosing an Appropriate Topic:

Choosing an Appropriate Topic Is It Important to You? Is It Important to Your Audience? Will It Hold Audience’s Attention? Is It Manageable in the Time Available? Is It Appropriate for Oral Presentation? Is It Clear?

Develop Central Idea:

Georgia 4-H provides us with the skills we need to be successful in life. Develop Central Idea Write a one sentence summary of speech.

Generate Main Idea:

Generate Main Idea Does It Have Logical Divisions? Are There Reasons Why It Is True? Can You Support It? A... B... C... Because...

Narrowing a Topic - Example:

Narrowing a Topic - Example Protecting the Environment Water Quality in My State Well Water Problems Utilizing Home Well Assessments to Reduce Contamination Risk

Getting Topic Feedback:

Getting Topic Feedback From Members of Potential Audience From Friends From Family From 4-H’ers

Researching Topic and Finding Supporting Material:

Researching Topic and Finding Supporting Material Sources of Supporting Material Types of Supporting Material Tests of Supporting Material

Sources of Supporting Material :

Sources of Supporting Material Libraries Books Periodicals Newspapers Reference Materials CD-ROM Data Bases Government Documents

Sources of Supporting Material (con’t):

Sources of Supporting Material (con’t) The Internet/World Wide Web Search Engines Infoseek Yahoo Lycos HotBot Google, etc. Online Libraries

Types of Supporting Material:

Types of Supporting Material Common Knowledge Direct Observation Examples & Illustrations Explanations & Descriptions Documents

Tests of Supporting Material:

Tests of Supporting Material Is Information Specific? Is Source an Expert? Is Source Unbiased? Is Information Timely?

Tests of Supporting Material (con’t):

Tests of Supporting Material (con’t) Is Information Relevant to Point Made? Does Information Support the Point? Is Information Timely?

Special Considerations for Online Information:

Special Considerations for Online Information In Physical Print, Quality Is Controlled by Experts Journals - Peer Review Periodicals - Editors Published Texts - Editors, Librarians Online, Must Do Own Quality Control Beware! Everything On the Web Is Not ALL True

Organizing Your Speech:

Organizing Your Speech Chronological Topical Spatial Cause-Effect Problem-Solution Comparison- Contrast

Types of Outlines:

Types of Outlines Preliminary Outline (Rough-Draft) Main points to research Preparation Outline Title & Topic Purpose Introduction Main and Sub-Points Transitions Conclusion Support/Evidence

Types of Outlines:

Types of Outlines Speaker’s Outline Introduction Main Point Support Transitions Conclusion

Ethics in Speech Preparation - Researching:

Ethics in Speech Preparation - Researching Take Accurate Notes When Researching Record Complete Source Citations Credit Source of Ideas When in Doubt, Cite Source

Don’t Use Someone Else’s Speech!:

Don’t Use Someone Else’s Speech!


Introductions Types Functions

Types of Introductions:

Types of Introductions Identification with Audience Reference to Situation Statement of Purpose Statement of Importance of Topic Surprise Audience with Claim or Statistic

Types of Introductions (con’t):

Types of Introductions (con’t) Anecdotal Story Rhetorical Question Quotation Humor “So there I was at the summit of Mt. Killimanjaro, and I turned to the guide and said…”

Functions of Introductions:

Functions of Introductions Get Attention Introduce Topic Provide Motivation Establish Credibility Preview Speech


Conclusions Types Functions

Types of Conclusions:

Types of Conclusions Summary Quotation Personal Reference Challenge to Audience Offer Vision of the Future

Types of Conclusions:

Types of Conclusions Anecdotal Story Rhetorical Question Quotation Humor Remember what Dwight D. Eisenhower once said: “Things are more like they are now, than they have ever been before.”

Functions of Conclusions:

Functions of Conclusions Summarize Speech Reemphasize Main Idea Motivate Response Provide Closure

Methods of Delivery:

Methods of Delivery Manuscript Reading Memorized Impromptu Extemporaneous

Delivering Speech - Beginning:

Delivering Speech - Beginning Walk Calmly with Confidence to Front Establish Eye Contact Smile Naturally Deliver Introduction

Delivering Speech - During:

Delivering Speech - During Use Effective Eye Contact Use Effective Language Use Effective Gestures Be Enthusiastic Use Conversational Style Use Notes As Needed

Delivering Speech - Ending:

Delivering Speech - Ending “Frame” the Speech Pause before Returning to Seat But Don’t Ask for Questions Accept Applause Graciously

Elements of Vocal Delivery:

Elements of Vocal Delivery Speech Rate and Pauses Volume Inflection and Pitch Quality of Voice Pronunciation and Articulation

Elements of Physical Delivery or Body Language:

Elements of Physical Delivery or Body Language Appearance Posture Facial Expression Eye Contact Movement Gestures

Rehearsing Speech:

Rehearsing Speech Recreate Setting Practice Without Memorizing Time Speech

Rehearsing Speech:

Rehearsing Speech Practice Out Loud Practice Standing Up Watch Yourself

Rehearsing Speech:

Rehearsing Speech Practice Gestures Practice Eye Contact Practice Volume

Plan, Prepare, Polish, Practice, Present:

Plan, Prepare, Polish, Practice, Present The better you know your material the less anxious you’ll be about presenting it. Smile and act natural. Don’t apologize for being nervous. No one will know you’re nervous unless you call attention to it.


REMEMBER!!!! The 4-H Motto is “To Make the Best Better” and the 4-H Way is “Learn by Doing”! Keep these in mind as you prepare your speeches!