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Indian Ayurveda vis-a-vis Global Herbal Research Rajendra Prasad Founder, Technology-Patent.Com, & CEO, Merit India Consultants P Ltd. New Delhi :

Indian Ayurveda vis-a-vis Global Herbal Research Rajendra Prasad Founder, Technology-Patent.Com, & CEO, Merit India Consultants P Ltd. New Delhi

Hello!:

Hello! I’m Rajendra Prasad Formerly a scientist with CSIR, India and now an independent innovation consultant on intellectual property.

Want big impact? Use big image.:

Want big impact? Use big image. Origin : India - >5000 years ago Oldest & complete medical system : described in the Vedas ( Divine books of knowledge) Athrvaveda : dating back to 1000 BC Charak & Sushruta Samhita : Internal medicine and surgery Govt. of India’s ‘Drugs & Cosmetic Act, 1940’ : mentions 54 authoritative ref including Ayurveda, Charak and Shushruta Samhita Originally through Guru- Shishya method : Seventh century onwards – institutionalized in Takshila Univ , later Nalanda & Banaras Ayurveda – Regarded heritage of India along with Indian spirituality , yoga , culture, music, etc. Ayurveda : Historical Perspective

Want big impact? Use big image.:

Want big impact? Use big image. Components of Ayurveda Consists of well documented Sanskrit versions of i ) general medicine ( kaya chikitsa ), ii) paediatrics (bal chikitsa ), iii) psychiatry ( bhut vidya ), iv) ears-nose-throat & ophthalmic( urdhvang chikitsa ) v) surgery ( shalya tantra ), vi) toxicology ( agada tantra ), vii) geriatrics ( rasavana ), and vii) sex studies ( vakikarana ). + veterinary medicine Known to have been translated into Persian, Arabic, Tibetan and Chinese

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Want big impact? Use big image. Portuguese and Dutch in India - relied on Ayurvedic healthcare with favorable attitude - resulting into transfer of Indian botanical and medical knowledge to European medical schools. Garcia da Orta (1568), Christoval Acosta (1578) + 12 volume Hortus Malabarius (1678-1693) compiled by Aadrian Van Rheede on Indian botanicals, became reference books for tropical botany and medicine for a hundred years or more. British, however, favored European medical system in India. Establishment of ‘Indian Medical Service’ preferred by English speaking elite Indian as a career ensured marginalization of Ayurveda to secondary status by middle of 19th century. Status of Ayurveda (in British India)

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Early Revival of Ayurveda Despite Government‘s indifference, Ayurveda survived due to work of many spirited scholars: Kanny Lall Dey (1831-1899) Author acclaimed book ‘Indigenous Drugs of India’ – 1867 elected as President of Pharmacology Sec of the Indian Medical Congress in 1894 bestowed with the title of ‘ Rai Bahadur ’ Early 20 th Century : Kaviraj Gangadhar Roy - worked as Ayurvedic Physician & established Ayurvedic school Ganga Prasad Sen – produced and marketed Ayurvedic medicines in competition with modern medicine Training Centers – opened in Calcutta, Madras, Banaras …1827 - 1927

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Promotion of Ayurveda (in Independent India) At independence, India faced a double-edged sword coping up with huge disease burden ii) developing and supporting plurality of prevalent medical systems including Ayurveda, Yoga, Naturopathy, Unani , Siddha , and Homoeopathy besides modern medicine. Focus of first five year plan (1951-56) - control of malaria, family planning, general hygiene and overall increase of health services. Successive five year plans saw expansion of health services with covering additional areas, viz., chest diseases, leprosy, cancer and mental health

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Planning for Ayurveda Third five year plan (1961-66) onwards - promotion of Ayurveda integral to health services along with modern medicine started   In 1959, a Planning Commission’s Panel on Ayurveda recommended:  establishment of statutory Councils and Boards in all the states, compilation of pharmacopoeia of Ayurvedic medicines,  establishment of gardens of medicinal plants in various states and carrying out surveys of medicinal drugs already in common use for their wider application .   Thus, Government support became more visible in sixties for Ayurvedic medicine and education.

Ayurveda :

Ayurveda Educational: Central Institute of Research in Indigenous Systems of Medicine ( CIRISM ), Jamnagar in Gujarat - established – 1954 – precursor to Gujarat Ayurved University (1967) Banaras Hindu University PG programme since (1963) Govt of India - Seventh Plan (1985-90) Adoption of ‘National Health Policy’ – Health for All by 2000 Assigned greater role to Ayurveda in achievement of national goal taking advantage of 525000 - trained practitioners, >5000 pharma units and 200 colleges of Indian systems incld . Ayurveda close to target communities. Moving forward Copyright © 2016 Merit India Consultants Pvt Ltd, New Delhi. 

Creation of AYUSH (now an independent Ministry) – regarded as an INNOVATION:

Creation of AYUSH (now an independent Ministry) – regarded as an INNOVATION AYUSH To arrest lack of coordination between various Indian Systems T o address lack of standardisation of Ayurvedic Education and Medicine Department of Ayurvedic, Unani , Siddha and Homeopathy Establishment of in 1995 Copyright © 2016 Merit India Consultants Pvt Ltd, New Delhi. 

AYUSH strives for:

AYUSH strives for Mainstreaming of Ayurveda Integration of Ayurveda with Modern Medicine Special treatments for medical tourism PANCHKARMA Copyright © 2016 Merit India Consultants Pvt Ltd, New Delhi. 

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CCRAS 3 2 1 5 6 4 7 8 11 9 15 12 16 13 14 10 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 1. ACRI, New Delhi 2. NRIP, Trichur 3. RRAPACRI, Mumbai 4. NRIADD, Kolkata 5. NRIADD, Bhubaneswar 6. NIAPR, Patiala 7. NRIA, Gwalior 8. NVARIH, Lucknow 9. ACRI, Jaipur 10. AMHRI, Nagpur 11. NADRI, Bengaluru 12. ARIMCHC, Thiru’puram 13. NARIVBD, Vijayawada 14. ARRI, Patna 15. NEIARI, Guwahati 16. ARRI,  Gangtok 17. ARRI, New Itanagar 18. ARRI, Jammu 19. ARRI, Mandi 20. RRIHF, Thapla 21. NVARI, Jhansi 22. ACDRI, Ahmedabad 23. NIIMH, Hyderabad 24. CSMRRIASDD, Chennai 25. ACAMHNSARU, Bengaluru 26. DALRCA, Chennai 27. NRIBAS, Pune 28. ATHCR, Port Blair 29. NRISR, Leh 30. HARC, Nagaland Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic Sciences APEX BODY OF AYUSH Copyright © 2016 Merit India Consultants Pvt Ltd, New Delhi. 

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Focus on Medicinal Plants NATIONAL MISSION OF MEDICINAL PLANTS National Medicinal Plants Board Database of medicinal plants on its website Implements mandates policies and strategies for conservation, proper harvesting, cost-effective cultivation, research and development, processing, marketing of raw material Provides support for cultivation of priority med plants in clusters to farmers/ growers Clusters located in Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Bihar, Haryana, Jharkhand, Kerala, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Mizoram, Nagaland, Orissa, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand , and West Bengal.   Priority cultivation , of Amla , Ashwagandha , Brahmi , Coleus, Guggul , Isabgol , Kesar , Mulethi , Safaid , Musali , Senna , Tulsi etc. among 32 identified species Target of planned action - 2,50,000 tones of additional raw material for AYUSH industry. Estimated total potential - 3,19,000 tones of additional raw material for AYUSH industry. Copyright © 2016 Merit India Consultants Pvt Ltd, New Delhi. 

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Ayurveda on Education Front AYUSH COMES A LONG WAY IN PROMOTING ANCIENT HERITAGE Central Council of Indian Medicine Established under Indian Medicine Central Council Act, 1970 to regulate education curricula in Ayurveda and other Indian medicines Developed extensive infrastructure for education in Ayurveda, Enhanced cultivation of medicinal plants on large scale Created an eco-system for R&D on Ayurvedic therapies and plant based Ayurvedic medicines. Department of AYUSH turned into a full-fledged ministry along Launched ‘National Ayurveda Mission’ Receives budget augmentation from Rs. 7.75 billion in the X five year plan (2002-07) to Rs. 39.88 billion in the XI five year plan (2007-12) STATUTORY BODY Copyright © 2016 Merit India Consultants Pvt Ltd, New Delhi. 

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Global Spread of Ayurveda Argentina, Australia, Austria, Bangladesh, Brazil, Chile, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Israel, Italy, Japan, Korea Mauritius, Nepal, Netherlands, New Zealand, Poland, Russia, South Africa, Spain, Switzerland, Sri Lanka, Thailand, UK USA Alaska, California, Colorado, Florida, Illinois, Massachusetts, New Jersey, New Mexico, COUNTRIES / REGIONS WHERE AYURVEDIC COURSES & TRAINING KNOWN TO BE OFFERED MOSTLY IN PRIVATE SCHOOLS Vaidya Vasant Lad, Deepak Chopra, Robert Svoboda, David Frawley , Acharya Manfred Junius , Ben Hatai , Pandit Shiv Sharma, Dr PNV Kurup , Vaidya Bhagwan Das, Dr KN Udupa Prof HS Sharma. INDIVIDUAL SCHOLARS POPULARIZING AYURVEDA THROUGH PERSONAL VISITS & EFFORTS North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Washington Virginia Copyright © 2016 Merit India Consultants Pvt Ltd, New Delhi. 

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WHO Benchmarks FOR TRAINING IN AYURVEDA AND TRADITIONAL MEDICINE Focus on four areas: Concepts and Principles of Ayurveda along with Ayurvedic pharmacology, pathology and therapeutics, Training of Ayurveda practitioners, therapists and dieticians, Training for dispensers and distributors of Ayurveda and Safety issues in use of Ayurvedic medicines with safe use of metals, minerals, poisonous substances etc. Institutions in India may take lead to raise their standards of education in Ayurveda as per global benchmarks of WHO and make their campuses truly world-class to attract larger number of foreign students.   Copyright © 2016 Merit India Consultants Pvt Ltd, New Delhi. 

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WHO Recognition to Traditional Medicine KNOWLEDGE OF AYURVEDA SPREAD IN 6 TH CENTURY BC Copyright © 2016 Merit India Consultants Pvt Ltd, New Delhi.  TO TIBET , CHINA , MONGOLIA , KOREA AND SRI LANKA THROUGH BUDDHIST MONKS BASED ON THIS INDIGENOUS COMMUNITIES IN AFRICA, CHINA ETC. DEVELOPED THEIR OWN KNOWLEDGE BASE OBSERVING LOCAL FLORA & FAUNA KNOWN AS ‘ HERBAL MEDICINE ’ ALSO CALLED AS ‘ ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE ’ BEIJING DECLARATION 2008 – WORLD HEALTH ASSEMPLY WHO SUPPORT TO MEMBER STATES FOR DEVELOPING TRADITIONAL MEDICINE

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Intellectual Property & Traditional Medicine BEIJING DECLARATION Focus on   Copyright © 2016 Merit India Consultants Pvt Ltd, New Delhi.  WORLD HEALTH ASSEMPBLY 2008 WORLD HEALTH ASSEMPBLY 2005 FOCUS ON TRADITIONAL MEDICINE WITH CHANGING CONTEXT INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT / SUI GENERIS SYSTEM

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Protecting Bio-resources Copyright © 2016 Merit India Consultants Pvt Ltd, New Delhi.  ‘ Earlier directive New directive WORLD HEALTH ASSEMBLY 2005 WORLD HEALTH ASSEMBLY 2008 provides member states to protect their bio resources against misappropriation by third parties member states to invest in research, innovation and intellectual property based on medicinal plants The Biodiversity Act 2002 of India with concomitant rules in operation since 2004 We shall see in this presentation - How well India has done so far on IPR front in medicinal plants / herbal research?

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Traditional Knowledge Digital Library Copyright © 2016 Merit India Consultants Pvt Ltd, New Delhi.  WRONG TRURMERIC PATENT GRANTED BY USPTO LATER REVOKED WHEN CHALLENGED BY INDIAN AUTHORITIES BASED ON KNOWN TURMERIC USE & MENTION IN AYURVEDIC TEXTS LEAD ESTABLISHEMENT OF CSIR + AYUSH TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE DIGITAL LIBRARY (TKDL) TKDL INCLUDES ~212000 FORMULATIONS OF INDIAN SYSTEMS OF MEDICINE INCLUDING AYURVEDA EXTRACTED FROM SANSKRIT AND OTHER INDIAN LANGUAGES SEARCHABLE IN MAJOR INTERNATIONAL LANGUAGES USED BY PATENT EXAMINERS IN EU / USA OBJECTIVE : TO PREVENT MISAPPROPRIATION OF ANCIENT KNOWLEDGE OF INDIA IN COMMON USE IN INDIA FROM GETTING WRONG PATENTS GRANTED. CLAIMS TO HAVE PROTECTED AS MANY AS 200 PRODUCTS FROM BEING MISAPPROPRIATED

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Standardization of Value Chain OF TRADITIONAL MEDICINE Copyright © 2016 Merit India Consultants Pvt Ltd, New Delhi.  TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE PLAYS IMPORTANT ROLE IN DEVELOPING NEW PLANT BASED SAFER DRUGS SPURT IN HERBAL RESEARCH THROUGHOUT THE WORLD REGULATORY AUTHORITIES IN EUROPE / USA , HOWEVER VIEW AYUREVEDIC & TRADITIONAL MEDICINE WITH SOME CONERN EVEN IF THEY HAVE BEEN IN COMMON USE ELSEWHERE NECESSARY TO CONDUCT PRE-CLINICAL AND CLINICAL RESEARCHES TO OBTAIN SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE TO SUPPORT EFFICACY, SAFETY, AND QUALITY OF AYURVEDIC MEDICINE AND THERAPIES TO GET GLOBAL ACCEPTANCE ? 

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Global Trends in Patenting IN BOTANICALS AND HERBAL RESEARCH Copyright © 2016 Merit India Consultants Pvt Ltd, New Delhi.  AS PER TKDL RESEARCHERS EXPONENTIAL GLOBAL GROWTH OF PATENTS 4896 (2000) 15000 (2003) 35587 (2005) INDIAN PATENTS REGISTERED SUBSTANTIAL GROWTH SINCE 1995 MORE THAN 70% FILED BY FOREIGNERS MOST INDIAN APPLICANTS FILED IN CHEMICAL AND PHARMACEUTICALS

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Want big impact? Use big image. WIPO’s Relative Specialization Index PHARMACEUTICALS Copyright © 2016 Merit India Consultants Pvt Ltd, New Delhi. 

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Global Growth in Herbal Research Copyright © 2016 Merit India Consultants Pvt Ltd, New Delhi. 

No of Patent Documents Having the Term 'herbal’ in Title or in Abstract :

No of Patent Documents Having the Term 'herbal’ in Title or in Abstract Current Volume of Global Patents in Herbal Research Technology - Patent . Com Copyright © 2016 Merit India Consultants Pvt Ltd, New Delhi.  China USA Australia S Korea Japan Ukrain Canada Taiwan UK Germany India 25640 19800 4999 2179 387 336 326 282 255 163 144 Patent Applications 38247 Granted Patent s 13118 Others 3146 Total: 54511 Source : lens.org (7 March 2016)

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Country-wise Patent Protfolio of Selected Ayurvedic Herbs - 1 Source – Espacenet , Analysis with Matheo Patent (2016) Copyright © 2016 Merit India Consultants Pvt Ltd, New Delhi. 

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Want big impact? Use big image. Country-wise Patent Protfolio of Selected Ayurvedic Herbs - 2 Source – Espacenet , Analysis with Matheo Patent (2016) Copyright © 2016 Merit India Consultants Pvt Ltd, New Delhi. 

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Want big impact? Use big image. Source – Espacenet , Analysis with Matheo Patent (2016) Country-wise Patent Protfolio of Selected Ayurvedic Herbs - 3 Copyright © 2016 Merit India Consultants Pvt Ltd, New Delhi. 

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Copyright © 2016 Merit India Consultants Pvt Ltd, New Delhi. 

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Vannoy Gentles Fite in ‘Essential Oils for Healing’ “I believe that for every illness or ailment known to man, that God has a plant out here that will heal it. We just need to keep discovering the properties for natural healing.” 

Global Herbal Market :

Global Herbal Market Market EU Rest EU ASEAN JAPAN N. America Others Total Size (US $ billion) 28 2.4 10.8 9.8 6.9 4.1 62 Percentage (%) 45 4 19 16 11 7 100 Source: Department of Scientific & Industrial Research, Government of India Report 2000 Copyright © 2016 Merit India Consultants Pvt Ltd, New Delhi. 

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Want big impact? Use big image. S tructure of Indian Ayurvedic Manufacturing Industry Copyright © 2016 Merit India Consultants Pvt Ltd, New Delhi. 

Global Patent Profile of Dabur Research Foundation:

Global Patent Profile of Dabur Research Foundation Copyright © 2016 Merit India Consultants Pvt Ltd, New Delhi. 

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Global Patent Profile of Himalaya Drug Copyright © 2016 Merit India Consultants Pvt Ltd, New Delhi. 

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Patanjali HEADED BY ACHARYA BALKRISHNA, A CLOSE ASSOCIATE OF YOGA-GURU SWAMI RAMDEV Established 2006 Already too big Turnover (2011-12) Rs~4.5 billion Net worth of the company in 2016 - estimated Rs. 130 billion   Wide range of products for nutrition, dietary supplements, grocery, healthcare, medicine books on Yoga, Ayurveda and medicinal plants. Copyright © 2016 Merit India Consultants Pvt Ltd, New Delhi. 

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Research at Patanjali RESEARCH SET UP AT MULTIPLE LOCATIONS Focus on Agro technologies - seed selection / organic farming / tissue culture Collaborative research programme with: - National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources (NBPGR) - National Medicinal Plants Board Clinical research projects on: digestive system, hepato-biliary system, diabetes, disorders of cardiovascular system, rheumatoid arthritis, chronic renal failure, muscular dystrophy, hypertension, paralysis, migraine, epilepsy etc. Patanjali Herbal Research Institute, Patanjali Yogpeeth , Patanjali Research Foundation, Patanjali Herbal Gardens   Extensive collection of >200 herbs, shrubs, trees & ornamental plants Copyright © 2016 Merit India Consultants Pvt Ltd, New Delhi. 

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Who could have thought some years back that people with up-bringing in cosmopolitan culture would prefer bottle gourd juice or gooseberry juice over carbonated soft-drinks in the near future. Acharya Balkrishna The time is changing and not only the policy makers of India, but the whole world is realizing the importance of Ayurveda. Copyright © 2016 Merit India Consultants Pvt Ltd, New Delhi. 

So, What is the Big Idea?:

So, What is the Big Idea? Copyright © 2016 Merit India Consultants Pvt Ltd, New Delhi. 

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Summary Integration of Ayurvedic practice with modern medicine Safety & Clinical Trials Agro technologies Marketing Support and Promotion New drug discovery programmes Ayurved and Eco-tourism Copyright © 2016 Merit India Consultants Pvt Ltd, New Delhi. 

Thanks!:

Thanks! Any questions? You can find me at [email protected] Copyright © 2016 Merit India Consultants Pvt Ltd, New Delhi.  Indian Ayurveda vis- à -vis Global Herbal Research P resented at IndiaLICS Conference, Colorado (2016)