E.Social Learning Theory

Views:
 
Category: Entertainment
     
 

Presentation Description

No description available.

Comments

Presentation Transcript

Social Learning Theory:

Social Learning Theory

Radical Behaviorism Pros and Cons:

Radical Behaviorism Pros and Cons Pros: “Scientific” Deals with observable, measurable phenomena Rigorous methodology Con: Ignores the things that make humans “human” Cognitions Emotions “Free Will”

Therefore….:

Therefore…. Albert Bandura’s (1960s +) Social Learning Theory aka Social Cognitive Theory Put the “person” back into personality

Theoretical Foundations of Social Learning Theory:

Theoretical Foundations of Social Learning Theory Psychodynamic explanations of behavior are flawed They are based on inferred drives/needs/etc., which cannot be tested They ignore conscious cognitions They ignore situational influences Radical behaviorism is flawed It ignores cognition and emotion (Rotter’s “content of personality”) e.g., Assumes that actual reinforcement is necessary for learning to occur e.g., Rejects free will

Bandura’s Triadic Model of Reciprocal Determinism:

Bandura’s Triadic Model of Reciprocal Determinism Environmental Influences Personal Factors (beliefs, expectations, self-perceptions) Overt Behavior

Beyond Reinforcement 1:

Beyond Reinforcement 1 External reinforcement isn’t the only way in which behavior is acquired, maintained, or altered We can also learn by observing , reading , or hearing about others’ behavior We develop anticipated consequences for our behaviors Even for behaviors we’re never engaged in Our cognitive abilities give us the capability for insight and foresight

Beyond Reinforcement 2:

Beyond Reinforcement 2 Bandura’s biggest contribution to learning theory: New patterns of behavior can be acquired in the absence of external reinforcement We can pay attention to what others do, and repeat their actions i.e., We learn through observation, rather than through direct reinforcement

Self-Regulation and Cognition:

Self-Regulation and Cognition We can exercise control over our behavior through self-regulation We are not slaves to environmental influences We have free will Cognition allows us to use previous experiences, rather than trial-and-error, to foresee probable consequences of our acts, and behave accordingly Self-regulation allows us to choose behaviors that help us to avoid punishments and move towards long-term goals

Basic Processes of Observational Learning 1:

Basic Processes of Observational Learning 1 1. Attentional Processes (attend to and accurately perceive model’s behavior) 2. Retention Processes (remember the model’s behavior)

Basic Processes of Observational Learning 2:

Basic Processes of Observational Learning 2 3. Motor Reproduction Processes (translate symbolically coded memories of the model’s behavior into new response patterns) 4. Motivational Processes (if positive reinforcement is potentially available, enact the modeled behavior)

Reinforcement in Observational Learning:

Reinforcement in Observational Learning Types of Reinforcement Vicarious reinforcement Vicarious positive reinforcement Vicarious punishment Self-reinforcement Reward or punish self for meeting or failing to meet own standards

Empirical Evidence of Observational Learning:

Empirical Evidence of Observational Learning Children who see an adult behave aggressively might view that aggressive behavior as a positive thing (i.e., expect positive reinforcement of some type for that behavior), and therefore might imitate that aggressive behavior Bandura & Huston, 1961 Children imitate a model’s aggressive behavior in the presence of the model Bandura, Ross, & Ross, 1961 Children imitate a model’s aggressive behavior in a new setting, away from the model Bandura, Ross, & Ross, 1963 Will children imitate a film-model’s aggressive behavior?

Differential Association:

Differential Association Edwin Sutherland (1883-1950), in his third edition of Principles of Criminology (1939), viewed crime as a product of socialization. Crime is learned. It is learned by the same principles that guide learning of law abiding behavior of conformists.

DIFFERENTIAL ASSOCIATION:

DIFFERENTIAL ASSOCIATION DEVIANCE IS LEANED THROUGH ASSOCIATION WITH THOSE MORE FAVORABLE TO DEVIANCE LEARNING INCLUDES TECHNIQUES, MOTIVES, ATTITUDES AND RATIONALIZATION THE ASSOCIATION MUST BE: FREQUENT, INTENSE, AND LONG LASTING

Edwin Sutherland Differential Association Theory:

Edwin Sutherland Differential Association Theory Criminal behavior is learned. Criminal Behavior is learned in interaction with other persons in a process of communication. The principle part of the learning of criminal behavior occurs within intimate personal groups.

Edwin Sutherland Differential Association Theory Continued:

Edwin Sutherland Differential Association Theory Continued 4. When criminal behavior is learned, the learning includes (a) techniques of committing the crime, and (b) the specific direction of motives, drives, rationalizations, and attitudes. 5. The specific direction of motives and drives is learned from definitions of the legal codes as favorable or unfavorable.

Edwin Sutherland Differential Association Theory Continued:

Edwin Sutherland Differential Association Theory Continued A person becomes delinquent because of an excess of definitions favorable to violation of law over definitions unfavorable to violation of law. Differential associations may vary in frequency, duration, priority, and intensity.

Edwin Sutherland Differential Association Theory :

Edwin Sutherland Differential Association Theory The process of learning criminal behavior by association with criminal and anti-criminal patterns involves all the mechanisms that are involved in any other learning. While criminal behavior is an expression of general needs and values, it is not explained by those general needs and values, since non-criminal behavior is an expression of the same needs and values.

Principles of Differential Association:

Principles of Differential Association

Differential Association-Reinforcement Theory:

Differential Association-Reinforcement Theory Robert Burgess and Ronald Akers – added reinforcement to differential association theory. The same learning process produces as Sutherland, both conforming and deviant behavior. Primary learning mechanisms Instrumental conditioning Imitation continued on next slide

Differential Association-Reinforcement Theory:

Differential Association-Reinforcement Theory Akers' social structure–social learning theory explains crime as a function of learning within a social structure. Learning is the mediating process through which the environment causes crime. Location in the social structure is a major determinant of how one is socialized and what one will learn.

Differential Opportunity Theory:

Differential Opportunity Theory Illegitimate opportunity structure – subcultural pathways to success that the wider society disapproves of Reaction formation – the process by which a person openly rejects that which he or she wants or aspires to but cannot obtain or achieve

Differential Opportunity Theory:

Differential Opportunity Theory Cloward and Ohlin (1960) blended subcultural thesis with strain theory Two types of socially structured opportunities for success Legitimate Illegitimate continued on next slide

Differential Opportunity Theory:

Differential Opportunity Theory Members of lower-class subcultures may be denied access to legitimate opportunities Illegitimate opportunity structure Pre-existing subcultural paths to success not approved of by the wider culture continued on next slide

Differential Opportunity Theory:

Differential Opportunity Theory Delinquent behavior results from Ready availability of illegitimate opportunities Replacement of cultural norms with expedient subcultural rules

Differential Identification Theory:

Differential Identification Theory Daniel Glaser A person pursues criminal behavior to the extent that he identifies with real or imaginary persons from whose perspective his criminal behavior seems acceptable. The process of differential association leads to intimate personal identification with lawbreakers, resulting in criminal acts.

Differential Identification Theory:

Differential Identification Theory An explanation for crime and deviance that holds that people pursue criminal or deviant behavior to the extent that they identify themselves with real or imaginary people from whose perspective their criminal or deviant behavior seems acceptable

authorStream Live Help