apa style 5th edition

Category: Education

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This deals with the proper formatting of citations in research work, thesis and assignments


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APA STYLE GUIDE Citation style based on the Publication Manual (5th edition) of the American Psychological Association (APA)

For Assignments , thesis and power point presentations : 

...prepared by manoj praveen g @ftc 2 7/18/2010 For Assignments , thesis and power point presentations This guide focuses only on citation. Not on formatting,titling and other aspects of the entire document.

Plagiarism : 

...prepared by manoj praveen g @ftc 3 7/18/2010 Plagiarism We borrow products of other people’s intellectual or artistic efforts and fail to acknowledge the owners or even flaunt them as if they were our own. This is plagiarism – stealing intellectual property. It is wrong.

Acknowledge. . . . . . . . : 

...prepared by manoj praveen g @ftc 4 7/18/2010 Acknowledge. . . . . . . . There is nothing shameful about borrowing other people’s ideas. But we must acknowledge borrowed ideas.

Why to give references or “works cited” : 

...prepared by manoj praveen g @ftc 5 7/18/2010 Why to give references or “works cited” in the words of the APA Publication Manual (2001, p.348), “to ensure the accuracy of scientific and scholarly knowledge,” and “to protect intellectual property rights.”

What are the advantages in acknowledging intellectual borrowings honestly and accurately? : 

...prepared by manoj praveen g @ftc 6 7/18/2010 What are the advantages in acknowledging intellectual borrowings honestly and accurately? Advantage 1: the satisfaction that you’ve done the right thing. Advantage 2: enhances your credibility without burdening you with proportionate responsibility.

Slide 7: 

...prepared by manoj praveen g @ftc 7 7/18/2010 for example, you state, without citing any credible source, that there has been very little research on what kinds of organizational designs lead to successful technical and organizational innovations, (it is a mere statement of your opinion. Your reader may or may not take it seriously unless there is evidence that you are an expert in the field and/or that you have reviewed studies in the field. But if you cite Khandwalla and Mehta (2004) in support of your statement, there is a fundamental change in the way it is perceived. )

Advantage 3: : 

...prepared by manoj praveen g @ftc 8 7/18/2010 Advantage 3: The third advantage goes to your readers. Accurate acknowledgement makes it possible for them to go to the original source and study the issue in depth if they wish to.

What is the difference between references and bibliography? : 

...prepared by manoj praveen g @ftc 9 7/18/2010 What is the difference between references and bibliography? ‘References’ List of sources you have actually cited or mentioned in your document. ‘Bibliography’ Sources you have cited + relevant sources that you have consulted or are aware of, but not used in the document.

‘Reference’ is nothing but identifying a source accurately. we identify printed source documents by providing mostly the following data: : 

...prepared by manoj praveen g @ftc 10 7/18/2010 ‘Reference’ is nothing but identifying a source accurately. we identify printed source documents by providing mostly the following data: author’s name (surname + initials or fore names), year of publication, title of publication, place of publication, and publisher (for books) or Volume/Issue and article page numbers (for journals).

APA style : 

...prepared by manoj praveen g @ftc 11 7/18/2010 APA style Author-date citation. Developed by American Psychological Association.

Slide 12: 

...prepared by manoj praveen g @ftc 12 7/18/2010 APA style is the most widely adopted citation style for academic writing in social sciences, business, and management

Slide 13: 

...prepared by manoj praveen g @ftc 13 7/18/2010 it is easy on the reader’s eyes. (The core information – the author’s name and year of publication –the author’s name and how recent the information is given within the running text.) No foot notes, end notes etc.. several online guides to the APA style with fully worked out samples are readily available

citations match references : 

...prepared by manoj praveen g @ftc 14 7/18/2010 citations match references Every citation in the text should have a corresponding entry in ‘References.’ Similarly, every entry in ‘References’ should have a citation in the text. In other words, don’t put in ‘References’ sources you have not cited in the text.

Slide 15: 

...prepared by manoj praveen g @ftc 15 7/18/2010 In-text citations

work (book or journal article) by one author Examples: : 

...prepared by manoj praveen g @ftc 16 7/18/2010 work (book or journal article) by one author Examples: Sengupta (2004) has argued for … Downsizing has been criticized on ethical grounds (Sengupta, 2004), and … Downsizing has been described as “unethical” by Sengupta (2004, p.38) and …

work (book or journal article) by two or more authors : 

...prepared by manoj praveen g @ftc 17 7/18/2010 work (book or journal article) by two or more authors Khandwalla and Mehta (2004) argue … If there are three to five authors, mention all the surnames when introduced. Williams, Jones, Smith, Bradner, and Torrington (1983) If you cite the source again…. Williams et al. (1983)

When you have to cite two authors with the same surname : 

...prepared by manoj praveen g @ftc 18 7/18/2010 When you have to cite two authors with the same surname use the author initials also to distinguish between the two. Example: RS Mehta (1999) and PL Mehta (2001) agree on . . . . . .

When you cite several works by different authors at the same spot : 

...prepared by manoj praveen g @ftc 19 7/18/2010 When you cite several works by different authors at the same spot When you cite different authors at a particular point, separate the citations with a semicolon. Arrange the entries alphabetically, not chronologically. Example: This model has been applied to small and medium enterprises in Europe, USA, and recently in Asia (Frankel, 1994; Kaiser, Gupta, & Alam, 2004; Kwok, 2000; Peroux & Abbee, 1997; Whitaker, 1999).

When you use a secondary source : 

...prepared by manoj praveen g @ftc 20 7/18/2010 When you use a secondary source At times you are unable to access the original work (called ‘primary source’). Take, for example, an article by R.H. Grover, published in 1970. You are unable to access it. But you find that an important idea from it has been quoted or paraphrased by S. Chatterjee in her 1997 book, which you access. Grover (1970) is the ‘primary source’ and Chatterjee (1997) the ‘secondary source.’ In your text you should indicate the primary source but also cite the secondary source. Example: Grover’s 1970 definition of pension benefits (as cited in Chatterjee, 1997) is still adopted by… In the References section, give the full bibliographical details of only the secondary source that you actually consulted.

Slide 21: 

...prepared by manoj praveen g @ftc 21 7/18/2010 In-text citations, electronic sources

When there are no page numbers(Many electronic sources do not have page numbers.) : 

...prepared by manoj praveen g @ftc 22 7/18/2010 When there are no page numbers(Many electronic sources do not have page numbers.) But many have numbered paragraphs. Use the paragraph number preceded by the symbol ¶ or by the abbreviation “para.” Example: The new pension scheme has been criticized from an ethical perspective (Sengupta, 2003, ¶5) and from a sociological perspective (Grover, 2004, para. 12).

Slide 23: 

...prepared by manoj praveen g @ftc 23 7/18/2010 References ………the APA style

References : 

...prepared by manoj praveen g @ftc 24 7/18/2010 References This section comes at the end of the text of the report/document. The entries should be arranged alphabetically according to the author surnames

Journal……………….Article by single author : 

...prepared by manoj praveen g @ftc 25 7/18/2010 Journal……………….Article by single author Koenig, H. G. (1990). Research on religion and mental health in later life: A review and commentary. Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 23, 23-53. The parts of this reference are labelled below. Note the punctuation after each component. Note also the use of italics for some components. Article’s author: Koenig, H. G. Year of publication: (1990) Title of the article: Research on religion…commentary Name of the Journal: Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry Volume number: 23 Issue number: [Not mentioned. This is because this journal does not have separate numbering for each issue. If the first issue of Volume 23 ends on, say, page 170, the second issue will start from page 171. Therefore we don’t need to mention which issue the article is taken from. The volume number and page numbes will do.] Page numbers: 23-53

Journal………………..Article by two authors : 

...prepared by manoj praveen g @ftc 26 7/18/2010 Journal………………..Article by two authors Levin, J. S., & Vanderpool, H. Y. (1991). Religious factors in physical health and the prevention of illness. Prevention in Human Services, 9(2), 41-64. Note: Here there are two authors. See the ampersand (&) used to link the two authors. Another detail you will have noticed is 9(2). This means that the article comes in Volume 9 (italicized) and Issue 2 (in brackets, not italicized). The rest is the same as entry 1 above. Note also that when you cite two authors in the text, you join them not by an ampersand but by the word, ‘and.’

Journal…………….. Article by three or more authors : 

...prepared by manoj praveen g @ftc 27 7/18/2010 Journal…………….. Article by three or more authors Schollmeyer, E., Buschmaan, H. J., Jansen, K., & Wego, A. (2002). Surface modification of polymers using supramolecular compounds. Progress in Colloid and Polymer Science, 121, 39-42. Here there are four authors. Note the way the initials are given and the names are separated from each other. Example of in-text citation: Schollmeyer, Buschmaan, Jansen, and Wego (2002) argued that supramolecular compounds can be used to... If there are six or more authors, it is enough to cite the surname of the first author and give the phrase, ‘et al.’ to refer to the others both when the reference is introduced and later on.

Article in a magazine or newspaper : 

...prepared by manoj praveen g @ftc 28 7/18/2010 Article in a magazine or newspaper Desai, A. V. (2004, July 26). Why farmers kill themselves. Businessworld, 24, 10. Here you have to mention the date of publication, not just the year. Note that the name of the magazine/newspaper is in italics. The number 24 refers to the volume number and 10 is the page number.

Conference Paper : 

...prepared by manoj praveen g @ftc 29 7/18/2010 Conference Paper Malhotra, S.P. (2008, December). Epistemological issues related quality research in education. Paper presented at the Conference of All India Association for Educational Research, Jammu, Jammu & Kashmir, India.

Thesis : 

...prepared by manoj praveen g @ftc 30 7/18/2010 Thesis Raghavan, J. (1984). A critical study of Aurobindo’s conception to the building of modern Indian philosophy of education. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Nagpur University, Nagpur.

Dissertation Abstract : 

...prepared by manoj praveen g @ftc 31 7/18/2010 Dissertation Abstract Darling, C.W. (1976). Giver of due regard: the poetry of Richard Wilbur. Dissertation abstracts International, 44,4465. (AAD44-8794)

Books : 

...prepared by manoj praveen g @ftc 32 7/18/2010 Books The identifying details of a book are somewhat different from those of a journal article. Besides the name of the author and year of publication, you need the title of the book (in italics), the place of publication, and name of the publisher.

1. Book by single author : 

...prepared by manoj praveen g @ftc 33 7/18/2010 1. Book by single author Abrahamson, E. (2004).Change without pain. Boston, Mass.: Harvard Business School Press. Citations are just like those of journal articles: surname, year of publication, (and page number for direct quotes).

...prepared by manoj praveen g @ftc 34 7/18/2010 2. Book by two or more authors Raghuram, G. & Rangachari, N. (2000). Logistics and supply chain management. New Delhi: McMillan. 3. Book edited by one or more editors Jelin, E. (Ed.). (1991). Family, household, and gender relations in Latin America. New York: Routledge, Chapman & Hall. Here Jelin is not the author, but the editor. This information is indicated by (Ed.) coming immediately after the surname and the year of publication. If there are two or more editors, use (Eds.) between the names and the year of publication. Pearce, C. L. & Conger, J. A. (Eds). (2003). Shared Leadership: Reframing the Hows and Whys of Leadership. Thousand Oaks: Sage.

4. Article or chapter in an edited book : 

...prepared by manoj praveen g @ftc 35 7/18/2010 4. Article or chapter in an edited book Gardener, E. D. (1988). Heretics. In S. Nevins & L. Bointer (Eds.), 16th Century England (pp. 327-384). London: Methuen. Author of chapter: E. D. Gardener Title of chapter: Heretics Editors: S. Nevins & L. Bointer (Eds.) Title of the book: 16th Century England Page numbers of the chapter: 327-384 Publisher's name: Methuen Publisher's location: London Example of citation: Gardener (1988) presents an unconventional view of religious …

5. Book without author’s/editor’s name : 

...prepared by manoj praveen g @ftc 36 7/18/2010 5. Book without author’s/editor’s name The CCH Macquarie dictionary of business. (1993). North Ryde, NSW: CCH Australia. Here the title of the book takes the author position. When you arrange the references according to the surnames of authors, treat the first significant word in the title as the operative word, here CGH. Example of citation: According to some business dictionaries (e.g. The CCH Macquarie dictionary of business, 1993) an intrapreneur is…

Slide 37: 

...prepared by manoj praveen g @ftc 37 7/18/2010 6. Book, revised editionSpringer, S. P., & Deutsch, G. (1985). Left brain, right brain (Rev. ed.). New York: W. H. Freeman. Here it is made clear to the reader that the reference is to the revised edition of the book. The procedure is to give (Rev. ed.) immediately after the title of the book. 7. Non-English book Piaget, L & lnhelder, B. (1951). La genese de l’idee de hasard chez l’enfant [The origin of the idea of chance in the child]. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France. Provide the title of the article in the original form and the translated title in parenthesis 8. English translation of a book Luria, A. R. (1969). The mind of a mnemonist (L. Solotaroff, Trans.). New York: Avon Books. (Original work published 1965) The original author is A.R Luria. The translator is L. Solotaroff. That is indicated by the word, Trans. after the translator’s name. Example of citation: Luria (1965/1969) was one the earliest to analyze … Both the original publication date and the date of the translation are given in that order separated by a slash.

Slide 38: 

...prepared by manoj praveen g @ftc 38 7/18/2010 9. Brochure, corporate author Winslow-Ames Consulting Group. (2003). Caring for the elderly: An intensive workshop (3rd ed.) [Brochure]. New York: Author. If an organization is the author and publisher of a document such as a brochure, use the word ‘author’ in place of the publisher’s name. In brackets, identify the publication as a brochure. The rest of the reference is the same as for books. 10. Entry in an encyclopedia Marchant, E. (2003). Gypsy oak. In The new encyclopedia Britannica (Vol. 42, pp. 304-305). Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica.

B2: References to Electronic Sources : 

...prepared by manoj praveen g @ftc 39 7/18/2010 B2: References to Electronic Sources Electronic references today typically specify the following details: 1. Name of the author/s (if available) 2. Date on which the article is published or uploaded (if available) 3. Title of the article 4. Name of the source (example, journal, newsletter) 5. Date on which the article was retrieved 6. The complete URL The URL should link directly to the article, wherever possible. In other words, it is not enough to give the URL of the homepage when reference has been made to a specific page. Use n.d. (no date) when the publication date of the article is not available. The date of retrieval is important when referring to electronic sources because in the electronic form, articles might not be available indefinitely or the URL may change making it difficult for others to access it.

Slide 40: 

...prepared by manoj praveen g @ftc 40 7/18/2010 1. Internet articles based on or scanned from a print source (Today some print journals, magazines and newspapers have an electronic version which can be accessed via the World Wide Web. Supply as much publication data as you can get about the document you consult. Note that there are no page numbers in the html version. If, however, the file you access is a PDF one, it will give the page numbers, tables, graphics and so on exactly as in the print version. In such cases you will be able to indicate page numbers too.) Gentleman, J. (2004, August 1). Making wheels of justice turn in a chaotic Iraq. The New York Times. Retrieved August 1, 2004 from http://www.nytimes.com/2004/08/01/international/middleeast/01LAWY.html?hp Here you have the name of the author. The date of publication is given because the source is a daily. Both these are given as in print sources along with the title of the article (Making Wheels of Justice Turn in a Chaotic Iraq) and the source (The New York Times). The information was retrieved on August 1, 2004. The Internet address given will take you straight to the page where the article appeared. There is, however, no page number because the electronic source does not give any.

Slide 41: 

...prepared by manoj praveen g @ftc 41 7/18/2010 Here is an example from the electronic version of The Times of India. Kokje, M. (2004, June 14). Living and loathing in Mumbai. The Times of India. Retrieved June 20, 2004 from http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/739612.cms Here is another example, from The Economist, where the author’s name is not given because it is not known. America’s business backlash: The uncertain return of the hero boss (2004, July 15). The Economist. Retrieved August 1, 2004 from http://www.economist.com/business/displayStory.cfm?story_id=2925910 The title of the article is given in place of the author. The date and year of publication are given because the source, The Economist, is a weekly. The exact path to the page from which the article was retrieved is given too along with the date on which it was retrieved.

Slide 42: 

...prepared by manoj praveen g @ftc 42 7/18/2010 2. Article in an Internet-only journal Sobrero, P. M. (2004, April). Futuring: The Implementation of Anticipatory Excellence. Journal of Extension, 42(2). Retrieved June 20, 2004, from http://www.joe.org/joe/2004april/comm1.shtml Here 42 is the volume number and 2 the issue number. As the month and year of publication are available, they have been included in the reference entry.

Slide 43: 

...prepared by manoj praveen g @ftc 43 7/18/2010 3. Article in an Internet-only newsletter Scheid, J.F. (2004, January/February). BSE cow in U.S. triggers FDA, USDA cooperative response, new rules announced. FDA Veterinarian Newsletter, 19(1). Retrieved July 31, 2004 from http://www.fda.gov/cvm/index/fdavet/2004/Jan-Feb04%20Vet.pdf In an Internet periodical, volume and issue numbers often are not relevant. If they are not used or given in the original document, the name of the periodical is all that can be provided in the reference. In this example, however, the volume and issue numbers are available, and so are given.

Slide 44: 

...prepared by manoj praveen g @ftc 44 7/18/2010 4. Electronic copy of a journal article, retrieved from a database Mahoney, J. T. (2001). A resource-based theory of sustainable rents. Journal of Management, 27(6), 651-660. Retrieved July 6, 2004, from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science The article by Mahoney appeared in the printed version of the Journal of Management, Volume 27, issue (6), pages 651-660. Note that ‘p’ is not written before page 651. The electronic version of this printed article was retrieved on July 6, 2004, from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science The exact address of the page from which the article is taken is: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=MImg&_imagekey=B6W59-44NM46T-3- 1&_cdi=6565&_orig=browse&_coverDate=12%2F31%2F2001&_sk=999729993&view=c&wchp=dGLbVlzzSkzk&_ acct=C000050223&_version=1&_userid=1007252&md5=8eabd0fa6142dc34dee898d8cad96373&ie =f.pdf However, it is unnecessary to give such an impractically long string. This article has been retrieved from a collection of articles, http://www.sciencedirect.com/science rather than from the journal’s own site. When you take an article from such a collection, it is enough to indicate the URL of the collection; the reader can easily get to the exact location from it.

Slide 45: 

...prepared by manoj praveen g @ftc 45 7/18/2010 Here is another example, taken from a commercial database: EBSCO HOST. Jarrow, R., Ruppert, D., & Yu, Y. (2004). Estimating the interest rate term structure of corporate debt with a semiparametric penalized spline model. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 99(465), 57-66. Retrieved June 20, 2004, from EBSCO HOST Business Source Premier database. In this example 99 is the volume number and (465) is the issue number. The article starts on page 57 and ends on page 66. Only the name of the database is given, not the direct link to the page on which the article starts.

Slide 46: 

...prepared by manoj praveen g @ftc 46 7/18/2010 5. Chapter or section in an Internet document Bernstein, J. (n.d.) Integrating public relations and legal strategy: Trial by media. Retrieved August 1, 2004 from http://www.bernsteincrisismanagement.com/docs/azatty2.html In this example the date of publication/uploading is not given (n.d.) because it is not available. The author has put up on the World Wide Web several articles dealing with crisis management. The one cited is from among them. The link given will take you there direct.

Slide 47: 

...prepared by manoj praveen g @ftc 47 7/18/2010 6. Document available on university program or department Web site Kaplan, D. E. & Black, J. B. (2001). Computer-based tools for the development and investigation of scientific reasoning skills. Retrieved June 20, 2004, from Columbia University, Institute for Learning Technologies Web site: http://www.ilt.columbia.edu/publications/papers/kaplanblack.html

Slide 48: 

...prepared by manoj praveen g @ftc 48 7/18/2010 7. Report from a private organization, available on its Web site Tata Sons Ltd. (2004, April 26). Financial results for the Quarter and year ended 31 March, 2004. Retrieved June 20, 2004, from http://www.tata.com/cmc/releases/20040428fin.htm

Slide 49: 

...prepared by manoj praveen g @ftc 49 7/18/2010 8. Electronic data from government agencies Census of India 2001. (2001). Population in the age group 0 - 6 years by sex and sex ratio (0-6). Retrieved June 20, 2004, from Census of India online via access: http://www.censusindia.net/t_00_004.html

References : 

...prepared by manoj praveen g @ftc 50 7/18/2010 References Mohanty, S. B.,(2010,June). Workshop on writing research papers/scholarly articles: reading materials. Paper presented at the Workshop on writing research papers/scholarly articles, University of Calicut, Kozhikode. Monippally, M.M., Pawar, B.S., Nande,K., & Deou, B. (2004). IIMA Citation Style Guide For Presenting Assignments. Retrieved March 1, 2010 from http://stdwww.iimahd.ernet.in/IIMA_Style_Guide_2004.pdf