Group Processes and Development

Category: Education

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Group Processes and Development


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Group Dynamics, Processes & Development : 

By Manjiri Shanbhag 1 Group Dynamics, Processes & Development What is a group? Need & Reasons for Group Formation Types of Groups Introduction to Group Dynamics Discovering norms in Groups

What is a group? : 

By Manjiri Shanbhag 2 What is a group? A group is : “ two or more people who share a common definition & evaluation of themselves & behave in accordance with such a definition” a collection of people who interact with one another, accept rights & obligations as members who share a common identity” Criteria for a group include: Formal social structure Face-to-face interaction 2 or more persons Common fate Common goals Interdependence Recognition by others Reasons for formation of Group

Need & Reasons for Group Formation : 

By Manjiri Shanbhag 3 Need & Reasons for Group Formation Need for Group Formation: Three Elements that form the base for formation of group: 1. Activities 2. Interactions & 3. Sentiments These three elements are inter-related. An improvement in one element will trigger an improvement in others. The more activities persons share, that means improvement in the first element, the more interaction will take place and stronger will be their sentiments

Need & Reasons for Group Formation : 

By Manjiri Shanbhag 4 Need & Reasons for Group Formation Reasons for formation of Group Personal Characteristics – as saying goes ‘Birds of a feather fly together’, so the groups form around common political and cultural philosophies, ethnic and religious affiliations and such factors as age, sex, intelligence or similar interests and hobbies. Interests and Goals – Interests and Goals that are common and require cooperation with others for achievement of such goals are a powerful force behind such group formation. Individuals with common goals tend to work together. Some goals require group cooperative activity. Some groups are formed because of similar intellectual and recreational goals and pursuits. Opportunity for interaction- Given an opportunity to interact, people may discover that they have a/ lot in common, thus necessitating the formation of group. This interaction leads to friendships and group formation. Influence and Power- Henry Fayol’s last of the fourteen principles of effective administration is ‘Espirit de Corps’ which means power of togetherness. Most managers may listen to an employee’s complaint when employees approach in togetherness. Groups also provide opportunities for individual members to become leaders of the group and influence other members of the group with their views and reasoning.

Slide 5: 

By Manjiri Shanbhag 5 Types of Groups Command Group Command Group

Types of Groups : 

By Manjiri Shanbhag 6 Informal Groups These are formed by the members of such groups by themselves. They emerge naturally, in response to the common interests of organizational members. They are formed spontaneously, without any formal designation, ans with common interests such as self-defense, work assistance and social interaction. They exist outside the formal authority system and without any set rigid riles. These groups work based upon socio-psychological support and reasoning and depend upon member’s interaction, communication, personal likings and dislikes and social contacts within as well as outside the organization. These groups generally result due to personal bonds and social interaction among people who work together at the same place and may have similarities as well as differences in their nature and their outlook. These groups have their own leaders and followers, group goals, social roles and working patterns. The leadership of the informal groups develops from within rather than formal election. Types of Groups

Introduction to Group Dynamics : 

By Manjiri Shanbhag 7 Introduction to Group Dynamics Group Cohesiveness Factors contributing to Group cohesiveness

Introduction to Group Dynamics : 

By Manjiri Shanbhag 8 Time together – When you spend time together and interact, there is a tendency to get closer to each other, thus strengthening the degree of cohesiveness. The interactions typically lead to common interests and increased attention. Group size – Since continuous and close interactions is a fundamental necessity for cohesiveness, it would be natural to assume that large groups restrict the extent of communication and interaction with each other, thus resulting in reduction of degree of cohesiveness. Difficulty in entry – Some groups are not easy to join. The more difficult it is to get into a group, the more cohesive that group becomes. The reason being that in exclusive and elite groups the members are selected on the basis of certain characteristics and these characteristics being common to all add to the degree of liking and attraction towards each other. Threat and competition – Whenever common group goal is threatened, cohesiveness increases. Also when organizations face tough competition the members stand together and make sacrifices in benefit cuts in order to meet the competition and the members have been known to do that. Previous successes - If a group has a series of successes, it builds a united team spirit. Similarity of attitudes and values – This is one of the strongest sources of group cohesiveness is the similarity in values, morals, beliefs and code of conduct. Introduction to Group Dynamics

Introduction to Group Dynamics : 

By Manjiri Shanbhag 9 Introduction to Group Dynamics Consequences of Group Cohesiveness

Discovering Norms in Group : 

By Manjiri Shanbhag 10 Discovering Norms in Group Behavior Norms – These are rules and guidelines defining the day-to-day behavior of people at work. This behavior pattern may include punctuality as a habit, completing any given assignments within the required time frame-work, not losing temper, showing respect for other member’s opinions, not monopolizing the conversation and so on. Work Norms – These norms regulate the performance and productivity of individual members. These norms put an acceptable level of productivity, within reasonable tolerances so that comparatively poor performers can also be accommodated and that they do not become a burden on their peers.

Slide 11: 

By Manjiri Shanbhag 11 THANK YOU