Motivation Theories


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Motivation Theories


By: manjiri1077 (146 month(s) ago)


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Slide 1: 

By Manjiri Shanbhag What is Motivation What is the basic role of a Manager / Leader? Motivation – It’s the first quality, in any Leader / Manager, to drive subordinates to work to their best satisfaction Albert Einstein said that “A genius is 10% of inspiration & 90% perspiration”. This “will” to do is known as ‘Motivation’ Why? How?

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By Manjiri Shanbhag What is Motivation? Motivation represents an unsatisfied need which creates a state of tension or disequilibrium, causing the individual to move in a goal directed pattern towards restoring a state of equilibrium, by satisfying the need The concept of motivation has three characteristics Effort Persistence Direction The process of motivation involves the following: Analysis of situation Selecting and applying appropriate motivators Follow-up

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By Manjiri Shanbhag Sources of Motivation Positive motivation Negative or fear motivation Extrinsic motivation Intrinsic motivation Historical Development Traced back to twenty three centuries as reflected in the Greek and Indian writings Greek concept of Hedonism

Theories of Motivation : 

By Manjiri Shanbhag Theories of Motivation Content Theories Process Theories Some important content theories are: McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y Maslow’s Model ERG Theory McClelland’s Theory of Needs Herzberg’s Two-factor Theory

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By Manjiri Shanbhag McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y Douglas McGregor (1906-64) – industrial management at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Theory X assumptions Most people dislike work and avoid it whenever possible They need to be directed, controlled and threatened with punishment An average person is lazy, shuns from responsibility, prefers to be directed Most people avoid leading and want to be led and supervised Theory Y assumptions Work is natural to most people Commitment to goals and objectives of the organization is natural state of behavior They will exercise self direction and self control in achievement of organizational goals Commitment to goals and objectives is a function of rewards available, especially appreciation and recognition Most people have capacity for innovation and creativity for solving organizational problems Individuals seek leadership roles

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By Manjiri Shanbhag Growth Needs Deficiency Needs Self Actualized Needs Esteem Needs Social Needs Security Needs Physiological Needs Maslow’s Model Abraham Maslow developed this model in 1943

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By Manjiri Shanbhag ERG Theory Clayton Alerter developed this theory, which is refinement of Maslow’s theory McClelland’s Theory of Needs David McClelland –Harvard psychologist – The primary motive is the ‘achievement motive’ and is defined as ‘desire to succeed in competitive situations based upon an established perceived standard of excellence’. Need for Achievement (n Ach) Need for Power (n Pow) Need for Affiliation (n Aff)

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By Manjiri Shanbhag Fredrick Herzberg and his associates developed two-factor theory in late 1950s and early 1960s. Based on critical incident method - the job itself - recognition - responsibility - growth and development - Herzberg’s Two-factor Theory