insecurity terrorism and sustainable tourism development in nigeria

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INSECURITY AND TERRORISM: IMPACTS ON SUSTAINABLE TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA :

INSECURITY AND TERRORISM: IMPACTS ON SUSTAINABLE TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA BY    1 BASHIR MUHAMMAD ABUBAKAR; Department of General Studies, Federal Polytechnic, P.M.B. 0231, Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria; [email protected] ; +2348036873975  &  2 MURTALA MOHAMMED ALAMAI; Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Federal Polytechnic, P.M.B. 0231, Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria; [email protected] ; +2348065599757

Abstract :

Abstract Contemporary tourism has become a major economic earner for countries the world over. In Nigeria, there are a number of renowned tourist destinations that have attracted a number of tourists all over the world. In recent times however, increasing surge of insecurity and terrorism has raised a number of concerns about the potentials and sustainable tourism development in the country on one hand, and the impacts on the consumer, the tourism industry and the society on the other. This paper is a theoretical attempt to examine the impact of insecurity and terrorism on sustainable tourism development in Nigeria with a view to providing a synopsis of how insecurity and terrorism directly or indirectly affects sustainable tourism development in the country. The paper observes that high sense of risk and personal safety engendered by insecurity and terrorism has impacted negatively on the already weak and undeveloped tourism industry in the country. The paper recommends among other things the entrenchment of sound tourism development master plan capable of rejuvenating the potentials and ensuring sustainable tourism development in the country even in the face of difficulties and uncertainties. The paper employs the Desk Study approach as its methodology. Key Words: Insecurity, Personal Safety, Tourism Development and Worldwide Travel  

Introduction :

Introduction Tourism in recent times has developed significantly to become one of the most rapidly growing industries in the world. According to the World Tourism Organisation (WTO, 2002) ‘global economy is presently driven by three major industries: technology, telecommunication and tourism’. It is a fact, however, that irrespective of how naturally endowed a location can be, or well developed the physical infrastructures are, without peaceable environment such resources may never yield their full tourism potentials. There exists a noticeable symbiotic relationship between peaceful atmosphere and sustainable tourism development in a destination.

Conceptual Clarification:

Conceptual Clarification Tourism is referred here as ‘a service based industry which is made up of several elements including transportation, accommodation, food and beverage, tours and merchandising’ ( Essner , 2003). Terrorism represents ‘the premeditated use or threat of use of extra normal violence or brutality by sub national groups to obtain a political, religious, or ideological objective through intimidation of a huge audience, usually not directly involved with the policy making that the terrorists seek to influence’ (Enders, et al., 1992) . The United Nations referred to insecurity as a situation in which ‘men and women could not have the right to live their lives and raise their children in dignity, free from hunger and the fear of violence, oppression or injustice’ (United Nations, 2008) .

Conceptual Clarification continued:

Conceptual Clarification continued Sustainable development is seen as “Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of the future generation to meet their own needs” (World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987:43).

Impacts of Insecurity and Terrorism on Sustainable Tourism Development in Nigeria:

Impacts of Insecurity and Terrorism on Sustainable Tourism Development in Nigeria random acts of terrorism curtails travel activities and may remain so until the public memories of the publicized incidents fade the repercussions of terrorism extend beyond the activities that were directly associated with tourism. Sectors and stakeholders in aviation, hospitality, suppliers of intermediate goods and services, as well as employees and investors in the tourism industry suffered considerable losses. The impact of terrorism and insecurity however, can be more severe on developing economies and emerging tourist destinations. This is because competition for global tourism business is keen, and developing a world class tourist destination requires huge investment in infrastructural facilities and security outfits.

Impacts of Insecurity and Terrorism on Sustainable Tourism Development continued:

Impacts of Insecurity and Terrorism on Sustainable Tourism Development continued a sudden eruption of crisis or terrorist act is capable of driving away tourists and slowing down economic growth. Acts of terrorism strike fear into the public and lead to a change in regular travel behaviour due to the natural human reaction to fear. There is a growing global concern by analysts that if not systematically dealt with crisis, political unrest and other forms of insecurity are capable of wiping off the giant strides witnessed in the tourism industry in the last three decades ( Mwathe , 2011; Bhata , 2002 ; Holloway, 2001) . African tourism experts are in agreement on the potential of the tourism industry and its anticipated contribution to the overall economy of the continent once the available potentials are proactively harnessed.

Impacts of Insecurity and Terrorism on Sustainable Tourism Development continued:

Impacts of Insecurity and Terrorism on Sustainable Tourism Development continued For instance, in Nigeria, there is a growing consciousness that the tourism industry being eyed as a potential avenue for boosting the nation’s earnings. It is obvious however that these resources are not being fully exploited (Falade, 2000; Okey, 2006) . It is equally perceptible that tourism development in the country is not at par with major tourist destinations in the continent. The increasing fear of insecurity of lives and properties is presenting a new challenge to the investors, scholars and other stakeholders in the industry. It is obvious however that these resources are not being fully exploited (Falade, 2000; Okey, 2006) . It is equally perceptible that tourism development in the country is not at par with major tourist destinations in the continent.

Impacts of Insecurity and Terrorism on Sustainable Tourism Development continued:

Impacts of Insecurity and Terrorism on Sustainable Tourism Development continued The increasing fear of insecurity of lives and properties is presenting a new challenge to the investors, scholars and other stakeholders in the industry. Tourism and socio-economic development of the entire region have suffered greatly because of deliberate economic sabotages experienced frequently on facilities (oil installations, road networks, tourist destinations etc). (Sonmez, 1998) in a study of interrelationship between tourism development and crisis asserted that ‘the tourism industry is highly vulnerable to natural (hurricanes, volcanic eruptions, torrential rains) and human – caused disasters – whether social or political (riots, insurgency, terrorism, crime, political upheaval, war, regional tensions).

Impacts of Insecurity and Terrorism on Sustainable Tourism Development continued:

Impacts of Insecurity and Terrorism on Sustainable Tourism Development continued There is the more worrisome act of kidnapping tourists, foreign and local oil workers in exchange for culinary gains. To say the least, the current insurgency and terrorist activities on going in the North Eastern and other parts of the country have also threatened sustainable tourism development in the region and the country at large; this is not to talk of incessant intra-state and armed conflicts that are widespread in the country. Africa experienced 978 terrorist attacks in 2011 alone, an 11.5 percent increase over 2010. This is attributable in large part to the more aggressive attack tempo of the Nigeria-based terrorist group Boko Haram, which conducted 136 attacks in 2011—up from 31 in 2010 (National Counterterrorism Centre, 2012) . Generally, researchers in the field of tourism seem to agree on the following when considering the interrelationship between insecurity, terrorism and tourism (Essner, 2003; Page & Connel, 2006; Mwathe, 2011):

Impacts of Insecurity and Terrorism on Sustainable Tourism Development continued:

Impacts of Insecurity and Terrorism on Sustainable Tourism Development continued Tourism can be a harbinger of socio-economic development of host or tourist destination if properly managed. Tourists might be vulnerable and easy targets for terrorists and criminals partly because they are out of their familiar environment and so are likely to be more at risk. Moreover, they are believed to be affluent and may be able to afford ransom prices in case of kidnapping. Furthermore it seems terrorist groups are of the opinion that it is a lot easier to score cheap political point and gain publicity by attacking tourists. All forms of crises (either natural or manmade) are capable of grounding the global tourism business if not proactively tackled.

Conclusion :

Conclusion The policy perspective toward terrorism we suggest may not be more valid than other ones, and no one knows, of course, how the problem will play out in future years. However, the policy advanced here seems to me a sound and sensible one, and for there to be a really coherent policy discussion, it should be part of the mix. Deep concern about extreme events is not necessarily unreasonable or harmful. Thus, efforts to confront terrorism and reduce its incidence and destructiveness are justified. But hysteria is hardly required. As always, there are uncertainties and risks out there, and plenty of dangers and threats. But none are existential. The sky, as it happens, is unlikely to fall anytime soon.

Recommendation :

Recommendation Tourism cannot prosper in an atmosphere of chaos, insecurity and fear as such, all African nations must strive hard to maintain peace in their respective states through the means of fairness, justice and equity in the governance structure and system. States in Africa should as a matter of priority invest in improving the lots of its citizens through people oriented programmes of infrastructural development, poverty eradication, eradication of illiteracy, equitable access to resources and rule of law. The African free trade and movement policy/charter should be enforced to encourage exchange and foster mutual understanding and peace. There should be concerted and unambiguous effort to check the proliferation of small arms and light weapons within the continent. Likewise, the illegal trade in African mineral deposits and fossils, which are done in conjunction with arms trade for the exchange of these minerals and invariably encourage conflicts and strife, are checked

Bibliography :

Bibliography Abraham, P. & Yoel, M., 1996. Tourism, Crime and International Security. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Ajayi, A. P., 2012. The Socio-economic Impact of Crisis and Militancy on Tourism Destination Development in the Niger-Delta. Asian Journal of Management Sciences and Education, 1(1), pp. 127-140. Arana, J. & Leon, C., 2006. The Impact of Terrorism on Tourism Demand. Anals of Tourism Research, 35(2), pp. 299-315. Baker, K. & Coulter, A., 2007. Terrorism and Tourism: The vulnerability of beach vendors' livelihood in Bali. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 15(3), pp. 249-266. Bhata, A. K., 2002. International Tourism Management. New Delhi: Sterling Publishers Ltd.

Bibliography continued:

Bibliography continued CTDL, 1999. Leisure and Tourism. London: Oxford University Press. Enders, W., Sander, T. & Parise, G. F., 1992. An Economic Analysis of the Impact of Terrorism on Tourism. kyklos, 45(4), pp. 531-554. Essner, J., 2003. Terrorism's Impact on Tourism: What the Industry may learn from Egypt's struggle with al Gama'aal Islamiyya. Security and Development, 6(88), pp. 50-65. Falade, O., 2000. Understanding Tourism in Nigeria. Ibadan: Jis Publishing. Gleen, K., 2001. The Impacts of Tourism. 1st ed. New York: Loiusiana Sea Grant. Goodrich, J., 2002. September 11 2001 attack on America: A Record of immediate impacts and reactions in the USA. Tourism Management, 23(6), pp. 573-580.

Bibliography continued:

Bibliography continued Groenewald, H. & Peake, G., 2013. Google. [Online] Available at: http://pksoi.army.mil/doctrine_concepts/documents/UN/POLICE REFORM pdf Hall, A. & Sullivan, V., 1996. Tourism, Political Stability and Violence. In: Tourism, Crime and International Security Issues. Chichester: John Willey and Sons. Holloway, J., 2001. The Bussiness of Tourism. Edinburg: Pearson Educational Ltd. Khapoya, V. B., 1998. The African Experience. 2nd ed. London: Prentice Hall. Levin, J., 2006. Domestic Terrorism: The Roots of Terrorism. 1st ed. New York: Chelsea House Publishing Company. Mueller, J., 2004. Google Corporation. [Online] [Accessed 2 April 2014].

Bibliography continued:

Bibliography continued Mwathe, J., 2011. The Current Crisis in Egypt and how it has affected the Tourism Industry. [Online] Available at: http//www.ezinearticles.com [Accessed 06 April 2014]. National Counterterrorism Centre, 2012. Developing Statistical Information, New York: Annex of Statistical Information. OECD DAC, 2001. The DAC Guidelines: Helping Prevent Violent Conflicts. Paris: OECD Development assistance Committee. Okey, O. O., 2006. Tourism and Economic Development in Nigeria: An Empirical Investigation. Global Journal of Social Sciences, 2(1), pp. 33-45. Page, S. & Connel, J., 2006. Tourism: A Modern Systhesis. 2nd ed. London: Thomson Publishing.

Bibliography continued:

Bibliography continued Poirier, R. A., 2000. Tourism in the African Economic Milliue: A Framework of Mixed Blessing. In: The Political Economy of Tourism Development in Africa. s.l.:s.n., pp. 32-48. Ryan, C., 1993. Crime, Violence, Terrorism and Tourism: An Accidental or Intrinsic Relationships?. Tourism Management, 14(3), pp. 173-183. Sharpley, R. & Craven, B., 2001. The 2001 foot and mouth crisis-rural economy and tourism policy implication: A comment. Current Issues in Tourism, 4(6), pp. 527-537. Sonmez, S., 1998. Tourism, Terrorism and Political Instability. Anals of Tourism Research, 25(2), pp. 16-56. United Nations, 2008. 'Securing Peace and Development: The Role of the United Nations in Supporting Security Sector Reforms', New York: United Nations' Dc S/2008?39.

Bibliography continued:

Bibliography continued UNWTO, 2006. Africa: A Key Resources for Economic and Social Development, New York: Global Envission. UNWTO, 2011. Madrid: UNWTO. Wahab, S., 1995. Terrorism: A Challenge to Tourism. First Global Research and Travel Trade Conference on Security and Risk in Travel and Tourism, Volume 2, pp. 84-108. WTO, 2001. Tourism after 11 September, 2001: Analysis, remedial actions and prospects (Special report, number 18), Madrid: World Tourism Organisation. WTO, 2002. Google: Google.com. [Online] Available at: www.worldtourism.org [Accessed 11 September 2003]. Yaya, M., 2009. Terrorism and Tourism: The case of Turkey. Defence and Peace Economics, 20(6), pp. 477-497.

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