A Presentation on Monetary and Fiscal Policy

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A Presentation on Monetary and Fiscal Policy : 

A Presentation on Monetary and Fiscal Policy By Mamta Singh

Monetary Policy : 

Monetary Policy Monetary policy is one of the tools that a national government uses to influence its economy. Using its monetary authority to control the supply and availability of money, a government attempts to influence the overall level of economic activity. Usually this goal is “macroeconomic stability”- low unemployment, low rate of inflation, economic growth, and balance of external payments.

Fiscal Policy : 

Fiscal Policy Fiscal policy is used by the governments to influence the level of aggregate demand in the economy, in an effort to achieve economic objectives of price stability, full employment and economic growth.

Operation of a modern central bank : 

Operation of a modern central bank As we stated earlier that central bank attempts to achieve economic stability by varying the quantity of money in circulation, the cost and availability of credit, and the composition of a country’s national debt. The central bank has three instruments availability to it in order to implement monetary policy:

Slide 5: 

Open market operation Reserve requirements The discount window

Open Market Operation : 

Open Market Operation Open market operations are just that, the buying or selling of government bonds by the central bank in the open market. If the central bank were to buy bonds, the effect would be to expand money supply and hence lower interest rates, the opposite is true if bonds are sold. This is the most widely used instrument in the day to day control of the money supply due to its ease of use and the relatively smooth interaction it has with the economy as a whole.

Reserve Requirements : 

Reserve Requirements Reserve requirements are a percentage of commercial banks and other depository institutions demand deposit liabilities (i.e. chequing accounts) that must be kept on deposit at the central bank as a requirement of banking regulations. Though seldom used, this percentage may be changed by the central bank at any time , thereby affecting the money supply and credit conditions. If the reserve requirement percentage is increased, this would reduce the money supply by requiring a larger percentage of the banks, and depository institutions, demand deposits to be held by the central bank, thus taking them out of supply. As a result, an increase in reserve requirements would increase interest rates, as less currency is available to borrowers. This type of action is only performed occasionally as it affects money supply in a major way. Altering reserve requirements is not merely a short-term corrective measure, but a long term shift in the money supply.

Discount Window : 

Discount Window Discount window is where the commercial banks, and other depository institutions, are able to borrow reserves from the central bank at a discount rate. This rate is usually set below short term market rates (T-bills). This enables the institutions to vary conditions (i.e. the amount of money they have to loan out), there by affecting the money supply. It is of note that the discount window is the only instrument which the central banks do not have total control over.

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While fiscal policy is dependent on public debt, tax and deficit financing, Keynesian economics suggests that adjusting government spending and tax rates are the best ways to stimulate aggregate demand. This can be used in times of recession or low economic activity as an essential tool in providing the framework for strong economic growth and working toward full employment.

Slide 10: 

During periods of high economic growth, a budget surplus can be used to decrease activity in the economy. A budget surplus will be implemented in the economy if inflation is high, in order to achieve the objective of price stability. The removal of funds from the economy will, by Keynesian theory, reduce levels of aggregate demand in the economy and contract it, bringing about price stability.

Cooperation of monetary and fiscal policy : 

Cooperation of monetary and fiscal policy An appropriate monetary and fiscal policy is needed for achieving targets and stability of economic activities, some special features of these two policies are: Monetary policy has less inside time lag so there is less difference in making the policy and implementing it whereas it has more outside time lag means there is more difference in implementing the policy and its outcome while fiscal policy has more inside time lag in comparison to outside time lag because there is political system for finalizing the policy but once the policy is implemented the result comes faster.

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Due to lesser inside time lag it is easy to make the monetary policy and implement it so for day to day activities monetary policy is more effective. But for long run targets fiscal policy is more effective. Simply it is believed that fiscal policy is effective for economic growth and monetary policy is effective for stability.

So now it is clear that there is difference in the tools of monetary and fiscal policy and the impact of these two are also different on the economy but it does not mean that the two policies are independent of each other but they are dependent. Say for example if government is taking public debt for spending it will increase inflation which will create problems for stability in this situation monetary policy is needed : 

So now it is clear that there is difference in the tools of monetary and fiscal policy and the impact of these two are also different on the economy but it does not mean that the two policies are independent of each other but they are dependent. Say for example if government is taking public debt for spending it will increase inflation which will create problems for stability in this situation monetary policy is needed

Slide 14: 

Monetary policy is dependent on fiscal policy for for price stability, interest rate and total liquidity. Because till the government will not reduce its fiscal deficit central bank can not implement appropriate monetary policy.

Slide 15: 

Thank You

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