EMULSION

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EMULSION:

PRESENTED BY ABDUL MAJID PHARM-D BATCH 15 BIP S EMULSION

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EMULSION: It is a biphasic system Continuous phase Disperserd phase An emulsion is a mixture of two or more liquids that are normally immiscible.

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TYPES OF EMULSION Oil-in-water emulsions (O/W) :  Example: milk , Vanishing cream Water-in-oil emulsion (W/O) :  Example : Butter and cold cream   Oil in water in oil emulsion (O/W/O) Water in oil in water emulsion(W/O/W)

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  CLASSES OF EMULSIONS Micro emulsions Nano emulsions

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 EMULSIFYING AGENTS Synthetic Emulsifying Agents , benzalkonium chloride, benzethonium chloride Natural Emulsifying Agents V egetable derivatives : acacia , tragacanth , agar, pectin, carrageenan, lecithin e tc. Animal derivatives: gelatin , lanolin, cholesterol etc .

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  IDENTIFICATION TESTS 1. Dilution test : In this test the emulsion is diluted either with oil or water. If the emulsion is o/w type and it is diluted with water, it will remain stable as water is the dispersion medium" but if it is diluted with oil, the emulsion will break as oil and water are not miscible with each other. Oil in water emulsion can easily be diluted with an aqueous solvent whereas water in oil emulsion can be diluted with a oily liquid. 2 . Conductivity Test : The basic principle of this test is that water is a good conductor of electricity. Therefore in case of o/w emulion , this test will be positive as water is the external phase. In this test, an assembly is used in which a pair of electrodes connected to an electric bulb is dipped into an emulsion. If the emulsion is o/w type, the electric bulb glows.

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3. Dye Solubility Test : In this test an emulsion is mixed with a water soluble dye (amaranth) and observed under the microscope. If the continuous phase appears red, it means that the emulsion is o/w type as water is in the external phase and the dye will dissolve in it to give color. If the scattered globules appear red and continuous phase colorless, then it is w/o type. 4. Cobalt Chloride Test : When a filter paper soaked in cobalt chloride solution is dipped in to an emulsion and dried, it turns from blue to pink, indicating that the emulsion is o/w type. 5. Fluorescence Test : If an emulsion on exposure to ultra-violet radiations shows continuous fluorescence under microscope, then it is w/o type and if it shows only spotty fluorescence, then it is o/w type.

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INSTABILITY OF EMULSIONS Emulsion stability refers to the ability of an emulsion to resist change in its properties over time. There are four types of instability in emulsions: Flocculation: Flocculation occurs when there is an attractive force between the droplets, so they form flocs , like bunches of grapes. Creaming: Coalescence occurs when droplets bump into each other and combine to form a larger droplet, so the average droplet size increases over time. Coalescence: Emulsions can also undergo creaming, where the droplets rise to the top of the emulsion. Breaking:

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