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Concept of TQM From Quality Gurus : 

Concept of TQM From Quality Gurus By K.Anand & N.Mani

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Concept From Quality Gurus An extensive review of literature was carried out to identify the concept of TQM from quality gurus such as Deming (1986), Juran (Juran and Gryna, 1993), Crosby (1979), Feigenbaum (1991), and Ishikawa (1985). Their propositions are the foundation for understanding the concept of TQM. The following subsections present the main principles and practices of TQM proposed by these quality gurus.

Deming’s Approach to TQM : 

Deming’s Approach to TQM Deming (1986) stressed the responsibilities of top management to take the lead in changing processes and systems. Leadership plays in ensuring the success of quality management, because it is the top management’s responsibility to create and communicate a vision to move the firm toward continuous improvement.

Deming proposed 14 points as the principles of TQM (Deming, 1986), which are listed below: : 

Deming proposed 14 points as the principles of TQM (Deming, 1986), which are listed below: Create constancy of purpose toward improvement of product and service, with the aim to become competitive and to stay in business, and to provide jobs. Adopt the new philosophy. We are in a new economic age. Western management must awaken to the challenge, must learn their responsibilities, and take on leadership for change. Cease dependence on mass inspection to quality. Eliminate the need for inspection on a mass basis by building quality into the product in the first place. End the practice of awarding business on the basis of price tag. Instead, minimize total cost. Move toward a single supplier for any one item, on a long-term relationship of loyalty and trust.

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Improve constantly and forever the system of production and service, to improve quality and productivity, and thus constantly decrease costs. Institute training on the job. Institute leadership. The aim of supervision should be to help people and machines and gadgets to do a better job. Supervision of management is in need of overhaul,as well as supervision of production workers. Drive out fear, so that people may work effectively for the company. Break down barriers between departments. People in research, design, sales, and production must work as a team, to foresee problems of production and in use that may be encountered with the product or service. Eliminate slogans, exhortations, and targets for the workforce asking for zero defects and new levels of productivity. Such exhortations only create adversarial relationships, as the bulk of the causes of low quality and low productivity belong to the system and thus lie beyond the power of the workforce.

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Eliminate work standards (quotas) on the factory floor. Substitute leadership. Remove barriers that rob the hourly worker of his right to pride of workmanship. The responsibility of supervisors must be changed from sheer numbers to quality. Institute a vigorous program of education and self-improvement. Put everybody in the company to work to accomplish the transformation. The transformation is everybody’s job.

Juran’s Approach to TQM : 

Juran’s Approach to TQM TQM is the system of activities directed at achieving delighted customers, empowered employees, higher revenues, and lower costs (Juran and Gryna, 1993). Juran believed that main quality problems are due to management rather than workers. The attainment of quality requires activities in all functions of a firm. Firm-wide assessment of quality, supplier quality management, using statistical methods, quality information system, and competitive benchmarking are essential to quality improvement.

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Juran’s approach is emphasis on team (QC circles and self-managing teams) and project work, which can promote quality improvement, improve communication between management and employees coordination, and improve coordination between employees. He also emphasized the importance of top management commitment and empowerment, participation, recognition and rewards. According to Juran, it is very important to understand customer needs. This requirement applies to all involved in marketing, design, manufacture, and services. Identifying customer needs requires more vigorous analysis and understanding to ensure the product meets customers’ needs and is fit for its intended use, not just meeting product specifications.

Ishikawa’s Approach to TQM : 

Ishikawa’s Approach to TQM Ishikawa6 (1985) argued that quality management extends beyond the product and encompasses after-sales service, the quality of management, the quality of individuals and the firm itself. He claimed that the success of a firm is highly dependent on treating quality improvement as a never-ending quest. A commitment to continuous improvement can ensure that people will never stop learning. He advocated employee participation as the key to the successful implementation of TQM. Quality circles, he believed, are an important vehicle to achieve this.

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Like all other gurus he emphasized the importance of education, stating that quality begins and ends with it. He has been associated with the development and advocacy of universal education in the seven QC tools (Ishikawa, 1985). These tools are listed below: - Pareto chart; - Cause and effect diagram (Ishikawa diagram); - Stratification chart; - Scatter diagram; - Check sheet; - Histogram;

six fundamental principles : 

six fundamental principles Ishikawa (1985) suggested that the assessment of customer requirements serves as a tool to foster cross-functional cooperation; selecting suppliers should be on the basis of quality rather than solely on price; cross-functional teams are effective ways for identifying and solving quality problems. - Quality first-not short-term profits first; - Customer orientation-not producer orientation; - The next step is your customer-breaking down the barrier of sectionalism; - Using facts and data to make presentations-utilization of statistical methods; - Respect for humanity as a management philosophy, full participatory management; - Cross-functional management.

Crosby’s Approach to TQM : 

Crosby’s Approach to TQM Crosby (1979) identified a number of important principles and practices for a successful quality improvement program, which include, for example, management participation, management responsibility for quality, employee recognition, education, reduction of the cost of quality (prevention costs, appraisal costs, and failure costs), emphasis on prevention rather than after-the-event inspection, doing things right the first time, and zero defects. Crosby offered a 14-step program that can guide firms in pursuing quality improvement. These steps are listed as follows:

These steps are listed as follows: : 

These steps are listed as follows: Management commitment Quality improvement team Quality measurement: Cost of quality Quality awareness Corrective action: Zero defects planning. Supervisor training: Zero defects day: Goal setting:

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Error causal removal Recognition Quality councils: Do it over again:

Feigenbaum’s Approach to TQM : 

Feigenbaum’s Approach to TQM Feigenbaum (1991) defined TQM5 as: An effective system for integrating the quality development, quality-maintenance, and quality-improvement efforts of the various groups in a firm so as to enable marketing, engineering, production, and service at the most economical levels which allow for full customer satisfaction. He claimed that effective quality management consists of four main stages, described as follows: - Setting quality standards; - Appraising conformance to these standards; - Acting when standards are not met; - Planning for improvement in these standards.

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The quality chain, he argued, starts with the identification of all customers’ requirements and ends only when the product or service is delivered to the customer, who remains satisfied. There are two factors affecting product quality: The technological-that is, machines, materials, and processes; & The human-that is, operators, foremen, and other firm personnel. He argued that employees should be rewarded for their quality improvement suggestions, quality is everybody’s job. He stated that effective employee training and education should focus on the following three main aspects: Quality attitudes, Quality knowledge, and Quality skills.

Results From Quality Gurus : 

Results From Quality Gurus After the approaches to TQM of the five quality gurus have been reviewed, they do share some common points which are summarized as follows: It is management’s responsibility to provide commitment, leadership, empowerment, encouragement, and the appropriate support to technical and human processes. It is top management’s responsibility to determine the environment and framework of operations within a firm. It is imperative that management foster the participation of the employees in quality improvement, and develops a quality culture by changing perception and attitudes toward quality.

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The strategy, policy, and firm-wide evaluation activities are emphasized. The importance of employee education and training is emphasized in changing employees’ beliefs, behavior, and attitudes; enhancing employees’ abilities in carrying out their duties. Employees should be recognized and rewarded for their quality improvement efforts. It is very important to control the processes and improve quality system and product design. The emphasis is on prevention of product defects, not inspection after the event. Quality is a systematic firm-wide activity from suppliers to customers. All functional activities, such as marketing, design, engineering, purchasing, manufacturing, inspection, shipping, accounting, installation and service, should be involved in quality improvement efforts.



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