Power & Politics

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24.01.2010/Reshmi Pillai/OB

The Meaning: POWER:

24.01.2010/Reshmi Pillai/OB The Me aning: POWER Power is the capacity of a person, team, or organization to influe nce others. The po tential to influence others People hav e power they don’t use and may not know they possess Power req uires one person’s perception of dependence on another pe rson .

Sources of Power in Organizations:

24.01.2010/Reshmi Pillai/OB Sources of Po w er in Organizations Power over Others Sources Of Power Legitimate Power Reward Power Coercive Power Expert Power Referent Power Contingencies Of Power Substitutability Scarcity Centrality Importance Visibility

Five Bases of Power:

24.01.2010/Reshmi Pillai/OB Five B ases of Power Reward power: P romising or granting rewards. Coerciv e power: Threats or actual punishment. Legitimate power: Based on position or formal authority. Expert pow er: Sharing of knowledge or information. Referent po wer: Power of one’s personality (charisma).

Power and Dependence:

24.01.2010/Reshmi Pillai/OB Power a nd Dependence Person A Person B’s Goals Person B Person B’s counter power over Person A Person A’s power over Person B

Influence ability of the Target of Power:

24.01.2010/Reshmi Pillai/OB Influence ability of the Target of Power Dependency Un certainty Perso nality Intelligen ce Gender Age Culture

Consequences of Power:

24.01.2010/Reshmi Pillai/OB Commitment Consequ ences of Power Reward Power Legitimate Power Coercive Power Expert Power Referent Power Resistance Compliance Sources of Power Consequences of Power

Generic Influence Tactics:

24.01.2010/Reshmi Pillai/OB Generic In fluence Tactics Rational persuasion. Trying to co nvince someone with reason, logic, or facts. Inspirational appeals. Tryi ng to build enthusiasm by appealing to others’ emotions, ideals, or values. Consult a t ion. Getting others to participate in planning, making decisions, and changes. Ingratiatio n. Getting someone in a good mood prior to making a request; being friendly, helpful , and using praise or flattery. Personal appeal s. Referring to friendship and loyalty when making a request. Exchange. Mak ing express or implied promises and trading favors. Coalition tactics. Getting others to support your effort to persuade someone. Pressure. Dema nding compliance or using intimidation or threats. Legitimating ta ctics. Basing a request on one’s authority or right, organizational rules or polices, or express or implied support from superiors.

Why does having power matter?:

24.01.2010/Reshmi Pillai/OB Why does hav ing power matter? With power you can… Intercede favorably on behalf of someone in trouble Get a d esirable placement for a talented subordinate Get app rov a l for expenditures beyond the budget Get items o n and off agendas Get fast acce ss to decision makers Maintain re gular, frequent contact with decision makers Acquire ear ly information about decisions and policy shifts

Organizational Politics:

24.01.2010/Reshmi Pillai/OB Organiza tional Politics Political Ta ctics: Attacking or blaming others. Using informa tion as a political tool Creating a fav orable image. Developing a base of support. Praising othe rs (ingratiation). Forming powe r coalitions with strong allies. Associating wit h influential people. Creating oblig ations (reciprocity). “Involves intentional acts of in fluence to enhance or protect the self-interest of individuals or groups.”

Levels of Political Action in Organizations:

24.01.2010/Reshmi Pillai/OB Levels of Political Action in Organizations Distinguishing Characteristics Cooperative pursuit of general self-interests Cooperative pursuit of group interests in specific issues Individual pursuit of general self-interests Network Level Coalition Level Individual Level

Factors Contributing to Political Behavior:

24.01.2010/Reshmi Pillai/OB Chapter 11 12 Factors Contribut ing to Political Behavior Individual Fac tors Autho ritarian (Mac h i avellianism) Self-M onitoring High-ris k propensity Internal loc us of control High need for power, status, security, or a utonomy Organizational Factors Competition Level in Organization Low trust Role ambiguity and Counter norms Unclear evaluation systems Zero-sum allocations Democratic decision making High performance pressures Self-serving senior managers

THE TECHNIQUES OF POLITICAL BEHAVIOR MOORHEAD & GRIFFIN:

24.01.2010/Reshmi Pillai/OB THE TECHNIQUES OF POLITICAL BEHAVIOR MOOR HEAD & GRIFFIN 13 Reasons Political Behavior Possible Consequences

PowerPoint Presentation:

24.01.2010/Reshmi Pillai/OB Ambiguous goals (stakes are high) Scarce reso urces Technolog y and environment Non-progra mmed decisions (goals and processes are unclear) Organizati onal Change (uncertainty) Reasons Political Behavior Possible Consequences W HY???

PowerPoint Presentation:

24.01.2010/Reshmi Pillai/OB Controlling information Controlling lines of communication Using outside experts Controlling the agenda Playing games Building image Building coalition Controlling decision parameters Developing others Deal making Incurring obligation Reasons Political Behavior Possible Consequences H OW??? TECHNIQUES

PowerPoint Presentation:

24.01.2010/Reshmi Pillai/OB Personal gain disguised as pursuit of goals Pursuit of maximum share of resources Personal gains via uncertainty Pursuit of political ends during reorganization Reasons Political Behavior Possible Consequences W HAT???

PowerPoint Presentation:

24.01.2010/Reshmi Pillai/OB Politics are Real and Unavoidable Not all politics are bad Realize that this is reality Expect politics in a ll situations Politics ar e part of human interaction

Controlling Political Behavior:

24.01.2010/Reshmi Pillai/OB Controlling Political Behavior Provide Sufficient Resources Intro duce Clear Rules Free Fl owing Information Manage Ch ange Effectively Remove Po litical Norms Hire Low-Po litics Employees Increase O pportunities for Dialogue 8. Peer Pressu re Against Politics

Tips for Managing Organizational Politics:

24.01.2010/Reshmi Pillai/OB Tips for Managing Organizational Politics Don’t close your eyes to poli tics. Reduce System Uncertainty and Ambiguity. Reduc e Competition Break Ex isting Political Fiefdoms Prevent Futur e Fiefdoms Challenge pol itical behaviors. Walk the talk. Recognize tha t others may interpret your behaviors as political, even if you really weren’t being political. Reduce your o wn and others’ vulnerability to political behaviors.

DISTINCTION OF POWER FROM POLITICS:

24.01.2010/Reshmi Pillai/OB DISTINCTION OF POWER FROM P OLITICS POWER is the potential for influence POLI TICS is the exercise of that power. ---------(Denhardt) POWER is a property of the system at rest. POLITICS is the study of power in action. ---------(Pfeffer)

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