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GLOBE ONE CAST OF CHARACTERS Science Tri-Coordinators Mike White (USU), Elissa Levine (NASA), Russ Congalton (UNH) GLOBE PIs GLOBE Program Office Becky Boger –Hydrology John McLaughlin-Implement Peggy LeMone –Lead Sharon Sikora-Education Coming soon: Matt Gonzales – Ag Ed Iowa Marcy Seavey-IA Acad. Sci Kurt Noack-Hartman Nat. Res.


Origin Started in response to challenge to PIs on ways to increase publications using GLOBE data -- Complete set of measurements enables an Earth system perspective -- Focus on one location and a specific time enables more control over data quality and distribution -- Focus on one location allows strong interaction with teachers and students

GLOBE ONE Science Objective: 

GLOBE ONE Science Objective To determine the effects of the Land Use and Land Cover (LULC) on the different parts of the Earth system (soils, water, atmosphere, critters) WITH ADDITIONAL OBJECTIVES: Produce new results, while Working with teachers and students Using GLOBE data d. Enhancing a GLOBE Learning Community

Why Iowa?: 

Why Iowa? A Strong GLOBE Partnership with active schools and community involvement Thanks to Marcy Seavey, Iowa Partner Extrordinaire!

Given broad research question, how to focus on Black Hawk County?: 

Given broad research question, how to focus on Black Hawk County? Take land cover into account!


RESEARCH QUESTION What is the effect of: Agriculture (non, crop type, tilling (frequency, intensity, percent coverage of stubble over the winter) and urban land use) on the Earth system on: Weather and climate (e.g., relative humidity) Soils (e.g., how readily moisture passes through the soil) Streams and Lakes (e.g., will some streams be muddier than others?) Other (e.g., will budburst happen earlier or will hummingbirds nest earlier in some areas?)

Agriculture – what creates contrast in LULC: 

Agriculture – what creates contrast in LULC Land cover – Corn vs Soybeans Crop rotation – Corn alternates with soybeans unless market prices for one crop change drastically; some farmers add a third crop (e.g., hay) Distance between rows – dictated by machinery 1950s: Corn in “hills” Up to1980: 42” rows – width of horse. 2000: 30 inches: machinery Soybeans: 15” rows Tillage – “intensity” (how deep) - “frequency” (how often) - residue left over winter

Tillage and residue: 

Tillage and residue Why till the fields? -- prepare soil for seeds -- control weeds -- remove residue from previous crop -- improve heat transfer (plant earlier) -- aerate soil What does crop residue do? -- reduce erosion -- holds moisture -- increase organic matter -- lowers temp during day, higher at night -- provide shelter for animals -- BUT harder to plant seeds


Tillage Conventional Tillage: Intense manipulation of soil <15% residue Reduced Tillage: Less soil manipulation 15-30% residue Conservation Tillage: Intensity and frequency vary Soil not completely turned over >30% residue No Tillage: Soil undisturbed between harvest and planting. Residue Varies

Tillage in Black Hawk County: Site 8 Soybeans 2003; Corn 2004.: 

Tillage in Black Hawk County: Site 8 Soybeans 2003; Corn 2004. Site 8: no till Site 8: Till

Observation Sites: 

Observation Sites 4 pairs of farm sites (= 8) 2 pairs soybean sites, paired according to tilling 2 pairs corn sites, paired according to tilling 2 prairie sites, preferably near farm sites. 4-10 hydrology sites (streams or ponds) affected by representative land use types. 4+ school sites, representing different land-use types


Candidate sites Site 8: Corn Site 6: Beans Site 2: Prairie Cedar River Blackhawk River

Site 6: 2003 Corn; 2004 Soybeans: 

Site 6: 2003 Corn; 2004 Soybeans Site 6: No Till Site 6: Till

Site 2: Prairie: 

Site 2: Prairie Site 2: Looking east Site 2: Looking north

Measurements at Prairie and Ag sites: 

Measurements at Prairie and Ag sites Site Characterization Automatic Weather Station 15-min T,RH,wind at 1.5 m 15-min soil moisture at 5,10,60,90 cm Soil Characterization at installation, to 1 m incl gravimetric soil moist. Phenology (crop height, etc.) of corn and soybeans (ea week?) Snow (2 storms) Calibrations Farming practice (appl. herbicide, pesticide, tillage, etc.)

Hydrology Sites: 

Hydrology Sites Site 6 Site 8 Site 4

Measurements at Streams and Lakes: 

Measurements at Streams and Lakes Water pH Water conductivity Water transparency Water dissolved oxygen Water nitrates Water temperature Water alkalinity Freshwater macroinvertebrates


Schools Bill Hilton teaching Black Hawk County schoolchildren about observing ruby-throated hummingbirds. Orange Elementary Kittrell Elementary Central H.S. Hartman Reserve + 1

Measurements at School Sites: 

Measurements at School Sites Daily: Temperature Relative Humidity Cloud/Contrails Aerosol optical thickness Rain Rain pH Soil moisture Snowfall Phenology Hummingbirds

Land Cover Characterization: 

Land Cover Characterization Why: Context for all other measurements. How: student-determined land cover type “calibrates” satellite images of area so we can determine land-cover type (based on Modified UNESCO Classification (MUC) When: Fall 2004

Hypotheses (weather and climate): 

Hypotheses (weather and climate) Surface cover will affect local weather and climate We can model these effects Land cover and and associated soil- moisture and evapotranspiration affects cloud cover. Land cover affects snow cover duration, snow properties, soil temperature and moisture, and runoff.

Hypotheses: Soils: 

Hypotheses: Soils Soil properties (color, structure, bulk density, and others) will be different under different land use and land covers More organic carbon will be stored in a native prairie soil than under cropped soils, and there will more carbon under no till than conventional till practices. The amount of water and heat available for plant growth will differ under the varying land covers. The local climate will be affected by soil properties controlled by land cover Models using GLOBE student data can be used to predict changes in water and energy fluxes between the soil, vegetation, and atmosphere system

Hypotheses: Streams and Lakes: 

Hypotheses: Streams and Lakes Macroinvertebrate communities in lakes and streams will be most diverse near natural prairie, and least diverse near urban sites. Water transparency, dissolved oxygen, and nitrates, etc. will be affected by the land-use distribution in the nearby watershed.

Other objectives: To assess: 

Other objectives: To assess The effects of weather and surrounding land on the seasonal arrival and behavior of ruby- throated hummingbirds. The effects of snow cover on satellite-based aerosol retrieval The effects of snow cover on satellite-based detection of contrails

Adjusting a GLOBE Protocol: 

Adjusting a GLOBE Protocol Temperature and humidity change with height above the surface. What is the surface? preliminary design for weather-station mount

GLOBE ONE Timeline: 

GLOBE ONE Timeline *One school and Hartman Reserve identified for summer observations so far

Cool stuff is happening! : 

Cool stuff is happening! Hartman Reserve hosts a six-week Upward Bound camp each summer for promising high-school students who will be first in family to go to college. This summer’s project will be GLOBE soil characterization. David Brooks will be working with a graduate student at NIU on a haze Project as part of GLOBE ONE. A retirement home will take observations for GLOBE ONE. A student may help with the MUC-a-thon as part of her Girl Scout Project. Kittrell Elementary’s instrument shelter was vandalized. -- Teacher’s widower donated $ -- PTO offered labor or funds -- KWWL weatherman does story with school kids (on today) -- KWWL donates $200

What are YOUR questions and Hypotheses?: 

What are YOUR questions and Hypotheses? Assignment: Think of some projects you would like to do or see done. Possible Sources: Local lore on weather, climate, farming, etc. Something you saw and didn’t understand. Student questions that had you stumped. Play “stump the scientists”!!  Gary Larsen’s Scientists  Send questions To Sharon Sikora!

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