Foundations of individual behavior

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Foundations of Individual Behavior By Lucell Larawan

Planning Ahead — Chapter 14 Study Questions : 

Planning Ahead — Chapter 14 Study Questions How do perceptions influence individual behavior? What should we know about personalities in the workplace? How do attitudes influence individual behavior? What are the dynamics of emotions, moods, and stress? 2

Study Question 1: How do perceptions influence individual behavior? : 

Study Question 1: How do perceptions influence individual behavior? Basic background on work Work can be a “turn-on” or a “turn-off ” People may work under conditions that don’t provide satisfaction  but this it doesn’t have to be this way Valuing people and creating jobs and work environments that respect people’s needs and potential will benefit everyone 3

Study Question 1: How do perceptions influence individual behavior? : 

Study Question 1: How do perceptions influence individual behavior? Perception The process through which people receive, organize and interpret information from the environment People can perceive the same things or situations differently People behave on the basis of their perceptions 4

Study Question 1: How do perceptions influence individual behavior? : 

Study Question 1: How do perceptions influence individual behavior? Psychological contract Person-job fit begins here A set of expectations held by an individual about what will be given and received in the employment relationship An ideal work situation is one with a fair psychological contract Balance of contributions and inducements 5

Figure 14.1 Components in the psychological contract : 

Figure 14.1 Components in the psychological contract 6

Study Question 1: How do perceptions influence individual behavior? : 

Study Question 1: How do perceptions influence individual behavior? Perception and attribution Attribution The process of developing explanations for events Fundamental attribution error Occurs when observers blame another’s performance failures or problems on internal factors rather than external factors 7

Study Question 1: How do perceptions influence individual behavior? : 

Study Question 1: How do perceptions influence individual behavior? Perception and attribution Self-serving bias Occurs because individuals blame their personal performance failures or problems on external factors and attribute their successes to internal factors 8

Study Question 1: How do perceptions influence individual behavior? : 

Study Question 1: How do perceptions influence individual behavior? Perceptual tendencies and distortions: Stereotypes Occur when attributes commonly associated with a group are assigned to an individual Racial and ethnic Gender Ability Age Others? 9

Study Question 1: How do perceptions influence individual behavior? : 

Study Question 1: How do perceptions influence individual behavior? Perceptual tendencies and distortions Halo effects Occur when one attribute is used to develop an overall impression of a person or situation 10

Study Question 1: How do perceptions influence individual behavior? : 

Study Question 1: How do perceptions influence individual behavior? Perceptual tendencies and distortions: Selective perception The tendency to define problems from ones’ own point of view Projection The assignment of personal attributes to other individuals 11

Study Question 1: How do perceptions influence individual behavior? : 

Study Question 1: How do perceptions influence individual behavior? Perceptual tendencies and distortions: Impression management The systematic attempt to influence how others perceive us dress to convey positive appeal flatter others to generate positive feelings when conversing, make eye contact and smile display a high level of energy 12

Study Question 2: What should we know about personalities in the workplace? : 

Study Question 2: What should we know about personalities in the workplace? Personality The combination or overall profile of characteristics that makes one person unique from others 13

Study Question 2: What should we know about personalities in the workplace? : 

Study Question 2: What should we know about personalities in the workplace? “Big Five” personality traits: Extroversion Being outgoing, sociable, and assertive Agreeableness Being good-natured, cooperative, and trusting Conscientiousness Being responsible, dependable, and careful Emotional stability Being relaxed, secure, and unworried Openness Being curious, receptive to new things, and open to change 14

Study Question 2: What should we know about personalities in the workplace? : 

Study Question 2: What should we know about personalities in the workplace? 15

Study Question 2: What should we know about personalities in the workplace? : 

Study Question 2: What should we know about personalities in the workplace? Other personality traits that affect work behavior: Locus of control The extent to which one believes that what happens to them is within one’s control Authoritarianism The degree to which a person defers to authority and accepts status differences Machiavellianism The extent to which someone is emotionally detached and manipulative in using power 16

Study Question 2: What should we know about personalities in the workplace? : 

Study Question 2: What should we know about personalities in the workplace? Other personality traits that affect work behavior: Self-monitoring The degree to which someone is able to adjust and eand modify behavior in response to the situation xternal factors Type A personality Orientation toward extreme achievement, impatience and perfectionism 17

Figure 14.2 The “Big Five” & five more personality dimensions that influence human behavior at work : 

Figure 14.2 The “Big Five” & five more personality dimensions that influence human behavior at work 18 Please insert figure 14.2 here

Study Question 3: How do attitudes influence individual behavior? : 

Study Question 3: How do attitudes influence individual behavior? Attitude A predisposition to act in a certain way toward people and things in one’s environment Components of attitudes: Cognitive component Affective or emotional component Behavioral component Cognitive dissonance The discomfort a person feels when attitudes and behavior are inconsistent 19

Study Question 3: How do attitudes influence individual behavior? : 

Study Question 3: How do attitudes influence individual behavior? Components of attitudes: Cognitive component Affective or emotional component Behavioral component 20

Study Question 3: How do attitudes influence individual behavior? : 

Study Question 3: How do attitudes influence individual behavior? Job satisfaction The degree to which an individual feels positively or negatively about various aspects of work 21

Study Question 3: How do attitudes influence individual behavior? : 

Study Question 3: How do attitudes influence individual behavior? Common aspects of job satisfaction: Work itself Quality of supervision Coworkers Opportunities Pay Work conditions Security 22

Study Question 3: How do attitudes influence individual behavior? : 

Study Question 3: How do attitudes influence individual behavior? There is a strong and positive relationship between satisfaction and absenteeism and turnover 23

Study Question 3: How do attitudes influence individual behavior? : 

Study Question 3: How do attitudes influence individual behavior? Satisfaction-related concepts having quality of work life implications … 24

Study Question 3: How do attitudes influence individual behavior? : 

Study Question 3: How do attitudes influence individual behavior? Job performance The quantity and quality of task accomplishments by an individual or group at work 25

Study Question 3: How do attitudes influence individual behavior? : 

Study Question 3: How do attitudes influence individual behavior? Is there a relationship between job satisfaction and performance? Are satisfied workers more productive? Are productive workers more satisfied? Do rewards for productivity create satisfaction, influencing future performance? 26

Study Question 3: How do attitudes influence individual behavior? : 

Study Question 3: How do attitudes influence individual behavior? Emotions Strong feelings directed toward someone or something Emotional intelligence Ability to understand emotions and manage relationships 27

Study Question 3: How do attitudes influence individual behavior? : 

Study Question 3: How do attitudes influence individual behavior? Moods Generalized positive and negative feelings or states of mind Mood contagion Spillover of one’s positive or negative moods onto others 28

Study Question 4: What are the dynamics of stress and stress management? : 

Study Question 4: What are the dynamics of stress and stress management? Stress A state of tension experienced by individuals facing extraordinary demands, constraints, or opportunities 29

Study Question 4: What are the dynamics of stress and stress management? : 

Study Question 4: What are the dynamics of stress and stress management? Stressors Things that cause stress Originate in work, personal, and nonwork situations Have the potential to influence work attitudes, behavior, job performance, and health 30

Study Question 4: What are the dynamics of stress and stress management? : 

Study Question 4: What are the dynamics of stress and stress management? Work factors as potential stressors: Includes: Excessively high or low task demands Role conflicts or ambiguities Poor interpersonal relationships Too slow or too fast career progress Work-related stress syndromes: Set up to fail Mistaken identity 31

Study Question 4: What are the dynamics of stress and stress management? : 

Study Question 4: What are the dynamics of stress and stress management? Personal factors as potential stressors: Includes needs, capabilities, and personality Stressful behavior patterns of the Type A personality: Always moving, walking, and eating rapidly Acting impatient, hurrying others, disliking waiting Doing, or trying to do, several things at once Feeling guilty when relaxing Trying to schedule more in less time Using nervous gestures such as a clenched fist Hurrying or interrupting the speech of others 32

Study Question 4: What are the dynamics of stress and stress management? : 

Study Question 4: What are the dynamics of stress and stress management? Nonwork factors as potential stressors: Includes: Family events Economics Personal affairs “Spill-over” effect on the stress an individual experiences at work 33

Study Question 4: What are the dynamics of stress and stress management? : 

Study Question 4: What are the dynamics of stress and stress management? Consequences of stress: Constructive stress Acts as a positive influence Can be energizing and performance enhancing Destructive stress Impairs performance Breaks down a person’s physical and mental systems Can lead to job burnout and/or workplace rage 34

Figure 14.3 Potential negative consequences of a destructive job stress-burnout cycle : 

Figure 14.3 Potential negative consequences of a destructive job stress-burnout cycle 35

Study Question 4: What are the dynamics of stress and stress management? : 

Study Question 4: What are the dynamics of stress and stress management? Personal wellness: The pursuit of personal and mental potential though a personal health-promotion program A form of preventative stress management Enables people to be better prepared to deal with stress 36

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