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Communication, Conflict, and Negotiation By Lucell Larawan

Planning Ahead — Chapter 17 Study Questions : 

Planning Ahead — Chapter 17 Study Questions What is the communication process? How can collaboration be improved by better communication? How can we deal positively with conflict? How can we negotiate successful agreements? 2

Study Question 1: What is the communication process? : 

Study Question 1: What is the communication process? Communication An interpersonal process of sending and receiving symbols with messages attached to them Key elements of the communication process: Sender Message Communication channel Receiver Interpreted meaning Feedback 3

Figure 17.1 The interactive two-way process of interpersonal communication : 

Figure 17.1 The interactive two-way process of interpersonal communication 4

Study Question 1: What is the communication process? : 

Study Question 1: What is the communication process? Effective and efficient communication: Effective communication Occurs when the intended meaning of the sender is identical to the interpreted meaning of the receiver Efficient communication Occurs at a minimum resource cost Potential trade-offs between effectiveness and efficiency must be recognized 5

Study Question 1: What is the communication process? : 

Study Question 1: What is the communication process? Persuasion and credibility in communication Communication is used for sharing information and influencing other people Persuasion is getting someone else to support the message being presented Horizontal structures and empowerment are important contexts for persuasion 6

Study Question 1: What is the communication process? : 

Study Question 1: What is the communication process? Persuasion and credibility in communication Expert power and referent power are essential for persuasion Credibility involves trust, respect, and integrity in the eyes of others Credibility can be built through expertise and relationships 7

Study Question 1: What is the communication process? : 

Study Question 1: What is the communication process? Communication Barrier: Information filtering Poor choice of channels Poor written or oral expression Failure to recognize nonverbal signals Physical distractions 8

Study Question 1: What is the communication process? : 

Study Question 1: What is the communication process? Information filtering Intentional distortion to make it more favorable to the recipient Subordinates may hide unfavorable news from the manager or make it sound better than it really is 9

Study Question 1: What is the communication process? : 

Study Question 1: What is the communication process? Poor choice of channels Choose the channel that works best Written channels work for messages that: Are simple and easy to convey Require extensive dissemination quickly Convey formal policy or authoritative directives Spoken channels work best for messages that: Are complex or difficult to convey where immediate feedback is needed Attempt to create a supportive, even inspirational, climate 10

Study Question 1: What is the communication process? : 

Study Question 1: What is the communication process? 11

Study Question 1: What is the communication process? : 

Study Question 1: What is the communication process? Failure to recognize nonverbal signals Nonverbal communication takes place through gestures, facial expressions, body posture, eye contact, and use of interpersonal space Mixed messages occur when a person’s words and nonverbal signals communicate different things The growing use of communication technologies causes important nonverbal communication to be lost 12

Study Question 1: What is the communication process? : 

Study Question 1: What is the communication process? Physical distractions Include interruptions from telephone calls, drop-in visitors, a lack of privacy, etc Can interfere with the effectiveness of a communication attempt Can be avoided or at least minimized through proper planning 13

Study Question 1: What is the communication process? : 

Study Question 1: What is the communication process? Cross-cultural communication Global economy frequently creates the need to communicate with colleagues in other countries with different cultures Ethnocentrism Tendency to consider one’s culture superior to any and all others 14

Study Question 2: How can collaboration be improved by better communication? : 

Study Question 2: How can collaboration be improved by better communication? Effective communication is necessary for successful collaboration Reduce “noise” Overcome communication barriers Improve interpersonal connections Management openness Effective use of electronic media Active listening Feedback 15

Study Question 2: How can collaboration be improved by better communication? : 

Study Question 2: How can collaboration be improved by better communication? Transparency and openness Communication transparency involves sharing honest and complete information about the organization and workplace Open book management Managers provide employees with important financial information about their companies 16

Study Question 2: How can collaboration be improved by better communication? : 

Study Question 2: How can collaboration be improved by better communication? Ways to keep communication channels open through interactive management Management by wandering around (MBWA) Open office hours Regular employee group meetings Computer-mediated meetings and video conferences Employee advisory councils Communication consultants 360-degree feedback 17

Study Question 2: How can collaboration be improved by better communication? : 

Study Question 2: How can collaboration be improved by better communication? Using electronic media Information technologies facilitate communication The electronic grapevine speeds messages and information from person to person Functional if information is accurate and useful Dysfunctional if information is false, distorted, or based on rumor E-mail privacy Employer’s policy on personal e-mail Don’t assume that e-mail privacy exists at work 18

Study Question 2: How can collaboration be improved by better communication? : 

Study Question 2: How can collaboration be improved by better communication? Use of communication channels Channel richness is the capacity of a communication channel to carry information in an effective manner Low channel richness is impersonal, one-way, and fast High channel richness is personal, two-way, and slow Managers need to choose a channel with the appropriate richness for the communication 19

Figure 17.3 Channel richness and the use of communication media : 

Figure 17.3 Channel richness and the use of communication media 20

Study Question 2: How can collaboration be improved by better communication? : 

Study Question 2: How can collaboration be improved by better communication? 21

Study Question 2: How can collaboration be improved by better communication? : 

Study Question 2: How can collaboration be improved by better communication? Active listening The process of taking action to help someone say exactly what he or she really means Rules for active listening: Listen for message content Listen for feelings Respond to feelings Note all cues, verbal and nonverbal Paraphrase and restate 22

Study Question 2: How can collaboration be improved by better communication? : 

Study Question 2: How can collaboration be improved by better communication? Five rules for good listening: Listen for message content Listen for feelings Respond to feelings Note all cues Paraphrase and restate 23

Study Question 2: How can collaboration be improved by better communication? : 

Study Question 2: How can collaboration be improved by better communication? Feedback The process of telling others how you feel about something they did or said, or about the situation in general Constructive feedback guidelines: Give it directly Make it specific Give it when the receiver is willing/able to accept it Make sure it is valid Give it in small doses 24

Study Question 2: How can collaboration be improved by better communication? : 

Study Question 2: How can collaboration be improved by better communication? Space design Proxemics is the use of interpersonal space Interpersonal space is an important nonverbal cue Workspace layout is often overlooked as a form of nonverbal communication but is being increasingly recognized for its impact on communication and behavior 25

Study Question 2: How can collaboration be improved by better communication? : 

Study Question 2: How can collaboration be improved by better communication? Valuing culture and diversity Ethnocentrism is the tendency to consider one’s culture superior to any and all others Ethnocentrism can cause people to: Not listen to others Address or speak to others in ways that alienate them Use inappropriate stereotypes in dealing with someone from another culture 26

Study Question 3: How can we deal positively with conflict? : 

Study Question 3: How can we deal positively with conflict? Conflict A disagreement between people on: Substantive issues regarding goals and tasks, allocation of resources, distribution of rewards, policies and procedures, and job assignments Emotional issues arising from feelings of anger, distrust, dislike, fear, and resentment, as well as personality clashes Conflict that is well managed can help promote creativity and high performance 27

Study Question 3: How can we deal positively with conflict? : 

Study Question 3: How can we deal positively with conflict? Functional conflict Moderately intense conflict Constructive and stimulates people toward greater work efforts, cooperation, and creativity Dysfunctional conflict Low-intensity and very high-intensity conflict Destructive and hurts task performance 28

Figure 17.4 The relationship between conflict and performance : 

Figure 17.4 The relationship between conflict and performance 29

Study Question 3: How can we deal positively with conflict? : 

Study Question 3: How can we deal positively with conflict? 30

Study Question 3: How can we deal positively with conflict? : 

Study Question 3: How can we deal positively with conflict? People’s conflict management styles reflect different combinations of cooperative and assertive behavior Cooperativeness is the desire to satisfy the other party’s needs and concerns Assertiveness is the desire to satisfy one’s own needs and concerns 31

Study Question 3: How can we deal positively with conflict? : 

Study Question 3: How can we deal positively with conflict? Conflict management styles: Avoidance (withdrawal) Uncooperative and unassertive Accommodation (smoothing) Cooperative and assertive Competition (authoritative command) Uncooperative and assertive Compromise Moderately cooperative and assertive Collaboration (problem solving) Cooperative and assertive 32

Figure 17.5 Alternative conflict management styles : 

Figure 17.5 Alternative conflict management styles 33

Study Question 3: How can we deal positively with conflict? : 

Study Question 3: How can we deal positively with conflict? Conflict management styles: 34

Study Question 3: How can we deal positively with conflict? : 

Study Question 3: How can we deal positively with conflict? Structural approaches for resolving conflicts: Appealing to higher level goals Making more resources available Changing the people Altering the physical environment 35

Study Question 3: How can we deal positively with conflict? : 

Study Question 3: How can we deal positively with conflict? Integrative devices for resolving conflicts: Using liaison personnel, special task forces, cross-functional teams, or a matrix organization Changing reward systems Changing policies and procedures Training in interpersonal skills 36

Study Question 4: How can we negotiate successful agreements? : 

Study Question 4: How can we negotiate successful agreements? Negotiation The process of making joint decisions when the parties involved have different preferences All negotiation situations are susceptible to conflict and require exceptional communication and interpersonal skills 37

Study Question 4: How can we negotiate successful agreements? : 

Study Question 4: How can we negotiate successful agreements? Negotiation goals and approaches: Substance goals Concerned with outcomes Tied to the “content” issues of negotiation Relationship goals Concerned with processes Tied to the way people work together Effective negotiations occur when: Issues of substance are resolved Working relationships are maintained or improved 38

Study Question 4: How can we negotiate successful agreements? : 

Study Question 4: How can we negotiate successful agreements? Criteria for effective negotiation: Quality Negotiating a “wise” agreement that is truly satisfactory to all sides Cost Negotiating efficiently, using minimum resources and time Harmony Negotiating in a way that fosters interpersonal relationships 39

Study Question 4: How can we negotiate successful agreements? : 

Study Question 4: How can we negotiate successful agreements? Types of negotiation: Distributive negotiation Focuses on claims made by each party Leads to win-lose outcomes Principled (or integrative) negotiation … Goal is to base the outcome on the merits of individual claims Leads to win-win outcomes 40

Study Question 4: How can we negotiate successful agreements? : 

Study Question 4: How can we negotiate successful agreements? Gaining integrative agreements: Separate the people from the problem Focus on interests, not on positions Generate many alternatives before deciding what to do Insist that results are based on some objective standard 41

Figure 17.6 The bargaining zone in classic two-party negotiation : 

Figure 17.6 The bargaining zone in classic two-party negotiation 42

Study Question 4: How can we negotiate successful agreements? : 

Study Question 4: How can we negotiate successful agreements? Common negotiation pitfalls: Falling prey to the myth of the “fixed pie ” Nonrational escalation of conflict Overconfidence and ignoring other’s needs Too much “telling” and too little “hearing ” Trap of ethical misconduct 43

Study Question 4: How can we negotiate successful agreements? : 

Study Question 4: How can we negotiate successful agreements? Ethical issues in negotiation High ethical standards should be maintained Profit motive and the competitive desire to win sometimes lead to unethical behavior Unethical negotiating behavior can lead to short-term gains but long-term losses 44

Study Question 4: How can we negotiate successful agreements? : 

Study Question 4: How can we negotiate successful agreements? Third-party dispute resolution Mediation Involves a neutral third party who tries to improve communication between negotiating parties and keep them focused on relevant issues Arbitration Involves a neutral third party who acts as a judge and issues a binding decision 45

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