Motivation

Views:
 
Category: Entertainment
     
 

Presentation Description

No description available.

Comments

Presentation Transcript

Slide 1: 

Motivation: Theory and Practice By Lucell Larawan

Planning Ahead — Chapter 15 Study Questions : 

Planning Ahead — Chapter 15 Study Questions How do individual needs influence motivation? What are the process theories of motivation? What role does reinforcement play in motivation? What is the link between job design and motivation? 2

Study Question 1: How do individual needs influence motivation? : 

Study Question 1: How do individual needs influence motivation? Motivation—the forces within the individual that account for the level, direction, and persistence of effort expended at work 3

Study Question 1: How do individual needs influence motivation? : 

Study Question 1: How do individual needs influence motivation? Needs Unfulfilled physiological and psychological desires of an individual Explain workplace behavior and attitudes Create tensions that influence attitudes and behavior Good managers and leaders facilitate employee need satisfaction 4

Study Question 1: How do individual needs influence motivation? : 

Study Question 1: How do individual needs influence motivation? Hierarchy of needs theory Developed by Abraham Maslow Lower-order and higher-order needs affect workplace behavior and attitudes Lower-order needs: Physiological, safety, and social needs Desires for physical and social well being Higher-order needs: Esteem and self-actualization needs Desire for psychological growth and development 5

Figure 15.1 Opportunities for satisfaction in Maslow’s hierarchy of human needs : 

Figure 15.1 Opportunities for satisfaction in Maslow’s hierarchy of human needs 6

Study Question 1: How do individual needs influence motivation? : 

Study Question 1: How do individual needs influence motivation? Hierarchy of needs theory Deficit principle A satisfied need is not a motivator of behavior Progression principle A need at one level does not become activated until the next lower-level need is satisfied 7

Study Question 1: How do individual needs influence motivation? : 

Study Question 1: How do individual needs influence motivation? ERG theory Developed by Clayton Alderfer Three need levels 8

Study Question 1: How do individual needs influence motivation? : 

Study Question 1: How do individual needs influence motivation? ERG theory Any/all needs can influence behavior at one time Frustration-regression principle An already satisfied lower-level need becomes reactivated when a higher-level need is frustrated 9

Study Question 1: How do individual needs influence motivation? : 

Study Question 1: How do individual needs influence motivation? Two-factor theory Developed by Frederick Herzberg Hygiene factors: Elements of the job context Sources of job dissatisfaction Satisfier factors: Elements of the job content Sources of job satisfaction and motivation 10

Figure 15.2 Herzberg’s two-factor theory : 

Figure 15.2 Herzberg’s two-factor theory 11

Study Question 1: How do individual needs influence motivation? : 

Study Question 1: How do individual needs influence motivation? Acquired needs theory Developed by David McClelland People acquire needs through their life experiences Needs that are acquired: 12

Study Question 1: How do individual needs influence motivation? : 

Study Question 1: How do individual needs influence motivation? Acquired needs theory Need for Achievement (nAch) Desire to do something better or more efficiently, to solve problems, or to master complex tasks People high in (nAch) prefer work that: Involves individual responsibility for results Involves achievable but challenging goals Provides feedback on performance 13

Study Question 1: How do individual needs influence motivation? : 

Study Question 1: How do individual needs influence motivation? Acquired needs theory Need for Power (nPower) Desire to control other persons, to influence their behavior, or to be responsible for other people Personal power versus social power People high in (nPower) prefer work that: Involves control over other persons Has an impact on people and events Brings public recognition and attention 14

Study Question 1: How do individual needs influence motivation? : 

Study Question 1: How do individual needs influence motivation? Acquired needs theory Need for Affiliation (nAff) Desire to establish and maintain friendly and warm relations with other persons People high in (nAff) prefer work that: Involves interpersonal relationships Provides for companionship Brings social approval 15

Study Question 2: What are the process theories of motivation? : 

Study Question 2: What are the process theories of motivation? Process theories of motivation … How people make choices to work hard or not Choices are based on: Individual preferences Available rewards Possible work outcomes Types of process theories: Equity theory Expectancy theory Goal-setting theory 16

Study Question 2: What are the process theories of motivation? : 

Study Question 2: What are the process theories of motivation? Equity theory Developed by J. Stacy Adams When people believe that they have been treated unfairly in comparison to others, they try to eliminate the discomfort and restore a perceived sense of equity to the situation Perceived inequity Perceived equity 17

Figure 15.3 Equity theory and the role of social comparison : 

Figure 15.3 Equity theory and the role of social comparison 18

Study Question 2: What are the process theories of motivation? : 

Study Question 2: What are the process theories of motivation? Equity theory People respond to perceived negative inequity by changing … Work inputs Rewards received Comparison points Situation 19

Study Question 2: What are the process theories of motivation? : 

Study Question 2: What are the process theories of motivation? Managerial implications of equity theory— Underpaid people experience anger Overpaid people experience guilt Perceptions of rewards determine motivational outcomes Negative consequences of equity comparisons should be minimized, if not eliminated Do not underestimate the impact of pay as a source of equity controversies in the workplace Gender equity Comparable worth 20

Study Question 2: What are the process theories of motivation? : 

Study Question 2: What are the process theories of motivation? Expectancy theory Developed by Victor Vroom Key expectancy theory variables: Expectancy — belief that working hard will result in desired level of performance Instrumentality — belief that successful performance will be followed by rewards Valence — value a person assigns to rewards and other work related outcomes 21

Figure 15.4 Elements in the expectancy theory of motivation : 

Figure 15.4 Elements in the expectancy theory of motivation 22

Study Question 2: What are the process theories of motivation? : 

Study Question 2: What are the process theories of motivation? Expectancy theory Motivation (M), expectancy (E), instrumentality (I), and valence (V) are related to one another in a multiplicative fashion: Motivation = Expectancy x Instrumentality x Valence If either E, I, or V is low, motivation will be low 23

Study Question 2: What are the process theories of motivation? : 

Study Question 2: What are the process theories of motivation? Managerial implications of expectancy theory— To maximize expectancy, managers should: Select workers with ability Train workers to use ability Support work efforts Clarify performance goals 24

Study Question 2: What are the process theories of motivation? : 

Study Question 2: What are the process theories of motivation? Managerial implications of expectancy theory— To maximize instrumentality, managers should: Clarify psychological contracts Communicate performance-outcome possibilities Identify rewards that are contingent on performance 25

Study Question 2: What are the process theories of motivation? : 

Study Question 2: What are the process theories of motivation? Managerial implications of expectancy theory— To maximize valence in a positive direction, managers should: Identify individual needs Adjust rewards to match individual needs 26

Study Question 2: What are the process theories of motivation? : 

Study Question 2: What are the process theories of motivation? Goal-setting theory Developed by Edwin Locke Properly set and well-managed task goals can be highly motivating Motivational effects of task goals: Provide direction to people in their work Clarify performance expectations Establish a frame of reference for feedback Provide a foundation for behavioral self-management 27

Study Question 2: What are the process theories of motivation? : 

Study Question 2: What are the process theories of motivation? 28

Study Question 2: What are the process theories of motivation? : 

Study Question 2: What are the process theories of motivation? Goal-setting theory Participation in goal setting unlocks the motivational potential of goal setting management by objectives (MBO) promotes participation when participation is not possible, workers will respond positively if supervisory trust and support exist 29

Study Question 2: What are the process theories of motivation? : 

Study Question 2: What are the process theories of motivation? Self-Efficacy Theory a person’s belief that he or she is capable of performing a task Capability directly affects motivation higher self-efficacy will have higher expectancy self-efficacy is linked to performance goal setting 30

Study Question 2: What are the process theories of motivation? : 

Study Question 2: What are the process theories of motivation? Self-Efficacy Theory Enactive mastery person gains confidence through positive experience Vicarious modeling learning by observing others Verbal persuasion encouragement from others that one can perform a task Emotional arousal high stimulation or energy to perform well in a situation 31

Study Question 3: What role does reinforcement play in motivation? : 

Study Question 3: What role does reinforcement play in motivation? Fundamentals of reinforcement theory Focuses on the impact of external environmental consequences on behavior Law of effect — impact of type of consequence on future behavior 32

Study Question 3: What role does reinforcement play in motivation? : 

Study Question 3: What role does reinforcement play in motivation? Operant conditioning: Developed by B.F. Skinner Applies law of effect to control behavior by manipulating its consequences 33

Study Question 3: What role does reinforcement play in motivation? : 

Study Question 3: What role does reinforcement play in motivation? Operant conditioning strategies: Positive reinforcement Increases the frequency of a behavior through the contingent presentation of a pleasant consequence Negative reinforcement Increases the frequency of a behavior through the contingent removal of an unpleasant consequence 34

Study Question 3: What role does reinforcement play in motivation? : 

Study Question 3: What role does reinforcement play in motivation? Operant conditioning strategies: Punishment Decreases the frequency of a behavior through the contingent presentation of an unpleasant consequence Extinction Decreases the frequency of a behavior through the contingent removal of an pleasant consequence 35

Study Question 3: What role does reinforcement play in motivation? : 

Study Question 3: What role does reinforcement play in motivation? Successful implementation of positive reinforcement is based on Law of contingent reinforcement — Reward delivered only if desired behavior is exhibited Law of immediate reinforcement — More immediate the delivery of a reward, the more reinforcement value it has 36

Study Question 3: What role does reinforcement play in motivation? : 

Study Question 3: What role does reinforcement play in motivation? 37

Study Question 3: What role does reinforcement play in motivation? : 

Study Question 3: What role does reinforcement play in motivation? Schedules of reinforcement: Continuous reinforcement administers a reward each time a desired behavior occurs Intermittent reinforcement rewards behavior only periodically Acquisition of behavior is quicker with continuous reinforcement Behavior acquired under an intermittent schedule is more permanent Shaping is the creation of a new behavior by positive reinforcement of successive approximations to it 38

Study Question 3: What role does reinforcement play in motivation? : 

Study Question 3: What role does reinforcement play in motivation? Guidelines for using punishment: Tell the person what is being done wrong Tell the person what is being done right Match the punishment to the behavior Administer punishment in private Follow laws of immediate and contingent reinforcement 39

Figure 15.5 Applying reinforcement strategies: case of total quality management : 

Figure 15.5 Applying reinforcement strategies: case of total quality management 40

Study Question 4: What is the link between job design and motivation? : 

Study Question 4: What is the link between job design and motivation? Job A collection of tasks performed in support of organizational objectives Job design The process of creating or defining jobs by assigning specific work tasks to individuals and groups Jobs should be designed so that both performance and satisfaction result 41

Study Question 4: What is the link between job design and motivation? : 

Study Question 4: What is the link between job design and motivation? Job simplification Standardizing work procedures and employing people in well-defined and highly specialized tasks Simplified jobs are narrow in job scope and low in job depth Automation Total mechanization of a job Most extreme form of job simplification 42

Study Question 4: What is the link between job design and motivation? : 

Study Question 4: What is the link between job design and motivation? 43

Study Question 4: What is the link between job design and motivation? : 

Study Question 4: What is the link between job design and motivation? Job rotation and job enlargement: Expands job scope Job rotation Increases task variety by periodically shifting workers among jobs involving different task assignments Job enlargement Increases task variety by combining two or more tasks previously assigned to separate workers Horizontal loading 44

Study Question 4: What is the link between job design and motivation? : 

Study Question 4: What is the link between job design and motivation? Job enrichment Building more opportunities for satisfaction into a job by expanding its content Increases job depth by adding work planning duties normally performed by a supervisor 45

Study Question 4: What is the link between job design and motivation? : 

Study Question 4: What is the link between job design and motivation? Job characteristics model Satisfaction and performance are influencec by three critical psychological states: Experienced meaningfulness of work Experienced responsibilities for work outcomes Knowledge of actual results of work activities 46

Study Question 4: What is the link between job design and motivation? : 

Study Question 4: What is the link between job design and motivation? The three critical psychological states are influenced by five core job characteristics: Skill variety Task identity Task significance Autonomy Feedback 47

Study Question 4: What is the link between job design and motivation? : 

Study Question 4: What is the link between job design and motivation? How to improve core job characteristics: Form natural units of work Combine tasks Establish client relationships Open feedback channels Practice vertical loading 48

Study Question 4: What is the link between job design and motivation? : 

Study Question 4: What is the link between job design and motivation? Flexible working hours Any work schedule that gives employees some choice in the pattern of their daily work hours Core time — all employees must be at work Flextime — allows employees to schedule around personal and family responsibilities 49

Study Question 4: What is the link between job design and motivation? : 

Study Question 4: What is the link between job design and motivation? Potential benefits of flexible working hours: People have greater autonomy in work scheduling while ensuring maintenance of work responsibilities Organizations can attract and retain employees who have special non-work responsibilities Worker morale may be improved 50

Study Question 4: What is the link between job design and motivation? : 

Study Question 4: What is the link between job design and motivation? Compressed workweek Allows a full-time job to be completed in less than the standard 5 days of 8-hour shifts Benefits — more leisure time, lower commuting costs, lower absenteeism, and potentially improved performance Disadvantages — increased fatigue, family adjustment problems, increased scheduling problems, possible customer complaints, and union opposition 51

Study Question 4: What is the link between job design and motivation? : 

Study Question 4: What is the link between job design and motivation? Job sharing One full-time job is split between two or more persons Work sharing An agreement between employees to cut back their work hours to avoid layoffs or termination 52

Study Question 4: What is the link between job design and motivation? : 

Study Question 4: What is the link between job design and motivation? Potential advantages of work sharing Trained and loyal workers can be retained while temporarily cutting labor costs Continued work  but with reduced earnings  for those who would otherwise be laid off Potential disadvantages of work sharing Employees who might otherwise be protected by seniority may suffer an income loss 53

Study Question 4: What is the link between job design and motivation? : 

Study Question 4: What is the link between job design and motivation? Telecommuting A work arrangement that allows a portion of scheduled work hours to be completed outside of the office Hoteling Virtual offices 54

Study Question 4: What is the link between job design and motivation? : 

Study Question 4: What is the link between job design and motivation? Potential advantages of telecommuting: Freedom from Constraints of commuting Fixed hours Special work attire Direct contact with supervisors Increased productivity Fewer distractions Being one’s own boss Having more personal time 55

Study Question 4: What is the link between job design and motivation? : 

Study Question 4: What is the link between job design and motivation? Potential disadvantages of telecommuting: Working too much Having less personal time Difficulty in separating work and personal life Less time for family Feelings of isolation Loss of visibility for promotion Difficulties supervising work-at-home employees from a distance 56

Study Question 4: What is the link between job design and motivation? : 

Study Question 4: What is the link between job design and motivation? Contingency workers Part-time workers who supplement the full-time workforce, often on a long-term basis Part-time work Work done on any schedule less than the standard 40-hour workweek and does not qualify person as a full-time employee 57

Study Question 4: What is the link between job design and motivation? : 

Study Question 4: What is the link between job design and motivation? Implications of part-time work: Provides employers with flexibility in controlling labor costs and dealing with cyclical labor demands Temporary workers may lack commitment and be less productive Contingency workers are often paid less and don’t receive important fringe benefits 58

authorStream Live Help