human resource management

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Human Resource Management By Lucell Larawan

Planning Ahead — Chapter 12 Study Questions : 

Planning Ahead — Chapter 12 Study Questions What is human resource management? How do organizations attract a quality workforce? How do organizations develop a quality workforce? How do organizations maintain a quality workforce? 2

Study Question 1: What is human resource management? : 

Study Question 1: What is human resource management? Human capital is the economic value of people with job-relevant abilities, knowledge, ideas, energies and commitments 3

Study Question 1: What is human resource management? : 

Study Question 1: What is human resource management? Human Resource Management is a process of attracting, developing, and maintaining a talented work force Management 11e Chapter 12 4

Study Question 1: What is strategic human resource management? : 

Study Question 1: What is strategic human resource management? Major human resource management responsibilities: 5

Study Question 1: What is human resource management? : 

Study Question 1: What is human resource management? Person-job fit The individual’s skills, interests, and personal characteristics are consistent with the requirements of work Person-organization fit The individuals values, interests, and behavior are consistent with the culture of the organization 6

Study Question 1: What is human resource management? : 

Study Question 1: What is human resource management? Strategic human resource management mobilizes human capital to implement organizational strategies 7

Study Question 1: What is human resource management? : 

Study Question 1: What is human resource management? Discrimination in employment Occurs when someone is denied a job or job assignment for reasons that are not job relevant 8

Study Question 1: What is human resource management? : 

Study Question 1: What is human resource management? Equal employment opportunity The right to employment without regard to race, color, national origin, religion, gender, age, or physical or mental ability Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 Equal Employment Opportunity Act of 1972 Civil Rights Act (EEOA) of 1991 9

Figure 12.1 A sample of U.S. laws against employment discrimination : 

Figure 12.1 A sample of U.S. laws against employment discrimination 10

Study Question 1: What is human resource management? : 

Study Question 1: What is human resource management? Affirmative action An effort to give preference in employment to women and minority group members Bona fide occupational qualifications employment criteria justified by capacity to perform a job 11

Study Question 1: What is human resource management? : 

Study Question 1: What is human resource management? Additional laws against employment discrimination: Americans With Disabilities Act of 1990 Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967 as amended in 1978 and 1986 Pregnancy Discrimination Act of 1978 Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 12

Study Question 1: What is human resource management? : 

Study Question 1: What is human resource management? Current legal issues in HRM Sexual harassment Equal pay and comparable worth Legal status of independent contractors Workplace privacy 13

Study Question 2: How do organizations attract a quality workforce? : 

Study Question 2: How do organizations attract a quality workforce? Human resource planning analyzes an organization’s HR needs and how to best fill them 14

Figure 12.2 Steps in strategic human resource planning : 

Figure 12.2 Steps in strategic human resource planning 15

Study Question 2: How do organizations attract a quality workforce? : 

Study Question 2: How do organizations attract a quality workforce? The foundation of human resource planning is job analysis The orderly study of job facts to determine just what is done, when, where, how, why, and by whom in existing or potential new jobs Job analysis provides information for developing: Job descriptions Job specifications 16

Study Question 2: How do organizations attract a quality workforce? : 

Study Question 2: How do organizations attract a quality workforce? Recruitment Activities designed to attract a qualified pool of job applicants to an organization Steps in the recruitment process: Advertisement of a job vacancy Preliminary contact with potential job candidates Initial screening to create a pool of qualified applicants 17

Study Question 2: How do organizations attract a quality workforce? : 

Study Question 2: How do organizations attract a quality workforce? 18

Study Question 2: How do organizations attract a quality workforce? : 

Study Question 2: How do organizations attract a quality workforce? Selection Choosing from a pool of applicants the person or persons who offer the greatest performance potential 19

Study Question 2: How do organizations attract a quality workforce? : 

Study Question 2: How do organizations attract a quality workforce? Selection process 20

Study Question 2: How do organizations attract a quality workforce? : 

Study Question 2: How do organizations attract a quality workforce? Reliability means that a selection device gives consistent results time after time Validity means that there is a clear relationship between what the selection device measures and job performance 21

Study Question 3: How do organizations attract a quality workforce? : 

Study Question 3: How do organizations attract a quality workforce? Interviews Unstructured interviews do not follow a formal and pre-established of questions Behavioral interviews ask job applicants about past behaviors that relate to the job Situational interviews ask job applicants how they would react in specific situations 22

Study Question 2: How do organizations attract a quality workforce? : 

Study Question 2: How do organizations attract a quality workforce? Employment Tests Used to further screen applicants by gathering additional job-relevant information Assessment centers examine how job candidates handle simulated work situations Work sampling involves observing applicants performing actual work tasks 23

Study Question 2: How do organizations attract a quality workforce? : 

Study Question 2: How do organizations attract a quality workforce? Employment Tests Biodata methods collect biographical information that has been proven to correlate with good job performance along with other traits such as 24

Study Question 3: How do organizations develop a quality workforce? : 

Study Question 3: How do organizations develop a quality workforce? Socialization Process of influencing the expectations, behavior, and attitudes of a new employee in a way considered desirable by the organization Orientation Set of activities designed to familiarize new employees with their jobs, coworkers, and key aspects of the organization 25

Study Question 3: How do organizations develop a quality workforce? : 

Study Question 3: How do organizations develop a quality workforce? Training Activities that provide the opportunity to acquire and improve job-related skills 26

Study Question 3: How do organizations develop a quality workforce? : 

Study Question 3: How do organizations develop a quality workforce? Performance management systems ensure that Performance standards and objectives are set Performance results are assessed regularly Actions are taken to improve future performance potential 27

Study Question 3: How do organizations develop a quality workforce? : 

Study Question 3: How do organizations develop a quality workforce? Performance appraisal Formally assessing someone’s work accomplishments and providing feedback Purposes of performance appraisal: Evaluation — lets people know where they stand relative to objectives and standards Development — assists in training and continued personal development of people 28

Study Question 3: How do organizations develop a quality workforce? : 

Study Question 3: How do organizations develop a quality workforce? Graphic rating scales A trait-based performance appraisal that includes checklists of traits or characteristics to evaluate performance Relatively quick and easy to use Questionable reliability and validity 29

Study Question 3: How do organizations develop a quality workforce? : 

Study Question 3: How do organizations develop a quality workforce? Behaviorally anchored rating scales (BARS) A behavior-based performance appraisal that describes actual behaviors that exemplify various levels of performance achievement in a job More reliable and valid than graphic rating scales Helpful in training people to master important job skills 30

Figure 12.4 Sample behaviorally anchored rating scale for performance appraisal : 

Figure 12.4 Sample behaviorally anchored rating scale for performance appraisal 31

Study Question 3: How do organizations develop a quality workforce? : 

Study Question 3: How do organizations develop a quality workforce? Recency bias is the tendency for evaluators to focus on recent behaviors instead of behavior that occurred throughout the evaluation period 32

Study Question 3: How do organizations develop a quality workforce? : 

Study Question 3: How do organizations develop a quality workforce? Critical-incident techniques Keeping a running log or inventory of effective and ineffective behaviors Documents success or failure patterns 33

Study Question 3: How do organizations develop a quality workforce? : 

Study Question 3: How do organizations develop a quality workforce? Results-based performance appraisals focus on accomplishments Usually qualitative and objective Determining what to measure may be difficult May create ethical problems 34

Study Question 3: How do organizations develop a quality workforce? : 

Study Question 3: How do organizations develop a quality workforce? Multiperson comparisons Formally compare one person’s performance with that of one or more others Types of multiperson comparisons: Rank ordering Paired comparisons Forced distributions 35

Study Question 3: How do organizations develop a quality workforce? : 

Study Question 3: How do organizations develop a quality workforce? 360° feedback Occurs when superiors, subordinates, peers, and even internal and external customers are involved in the appraisal of a jobholder’s performance 36

Study Question 4: How do organizations maintain a quality workforce? : 

Study Question 4: How do organizations maintain a quality workforce? Work-life balance How people balance career demands with personal and family needs Progressive employers support a healthy work-life balance 37

Study Question 4: How do organizations maintain a quality workforce? : 

Study Question 4: How do organizations maintain a quality workforce? Contemporary work-life balance issues: Single parent concerns Dual-career couples concerns Family-friendliness as screening criterion used by candidates 38

Study Question 4: How do organizations maintain a quality workforce? : 

Study Question 4: How do organizations maintain a quality workforce? Compensation and benefits Base compensation Salary or hourly wages Flexible benefits Employees can select a set of benefits within a certain dollar amount 39

Study Question 4: How do organizations maintain a quality workforce? : 

Study Question 4: How do organizations maintain a quality workforce? Pay for performance Paying people for performance is consistent with: Equity theory Expectancy theory Reinforcement theory Merit pay Awards a pay increase in proportion to individual performance contributions Provides performance contingent reinforcement 40

Study Question 4: How do organizations maintain a quality workforce? : 

Study Question 4: How do organizations maintain a quality workforce? Bonus pay plans One-time payments based on the accomplishment of specific performance targets or some extraordinary contribution 41

Study Question 4: How do organizations maintain a quality workforce? : 

Study Question 4: How do organizations maintain a quality workforce? Profit-sharing plans Some or all employees receive a proportion of net profits earned by the organization Gain-sharing plans Groups of employees share in any savings realized through their efforts to reduce costs and increase productivity 42

Study Question 4: How do organizations maintain a quality workforce? : 

Study Question 4: How do organizations maintain a quality workforce? Employee stock ownership plans Employees purchase company stock directly through employer, sometimes at a discount Stock options Employees have the right to purchase company stock at a fixed price in the future as a performance incentive 43

Study Question 4: How do organizations maintain a quality workforce? : 

Study Question 4: How do organizations maintain a quality workforce? Benefits Non-monetary forms of compensation Required Social security Unemployment insurance Worker’s compensation Not required Health insurance Retirement plans Paid time off 44

Study Question 4: How do organizations maintain a quality workforce? : 

Study Question 4: How do organizations maintain a quality workforce? Flexible benefits Allow employees to choose from a set of benefits Family-friendly benefits Help in balancing work and nonwork responsibilities Employee assistance programs Help employees deal with troublesome personal problems 45

Study Question 4: How do organizations maintain a quality workforce? : 

Study Question 4: How do organizations maintain a quality workforce? Retention Keeping well trained and productive employees Turnover management of promotions, transfers, terminations, layoffs, and retirements 46

Study Question 4: How do organizations maintain a quality workforce? : 

Study Question 4: How do organizations maintain a quality workforce? Early retirement Financial incentive offered to employees who retire early Termination Involuntary dismissal of an employee 47

Study Question 4: How do organizations maintain a quality workforce? : 

Study Question 4: How do organizations maintain a quality workforce? Employment-at-will Employees can be terminated at any time for any reason Wrongful discharge Workers have legal protection from discriminatory firings 48

Study Question 4: How do organizations maintain a quality workforce? : 

Study Question 4: How do organizations maintain a quality workforce? Labor-management relations Labor unions deal with employers on the workers’ behalf Collective bargaining Process of negotiating, administering and interpreting a labor contract 49

Study Question 4: How do organizations maintain a quality workforce? : 

Study Question 4: How do organizations maintain a quality workforce? 50

The traditional adversarial view of labor-management relations : 

The traditional adversarial view of labor-management relations 51

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