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Unit 1: Understanding and Representing DataLesson 3: Levels of Scale : 

Unit 1: Understanding and Representing DataLesson 3: Levels of Scale EDER 5210 – Educational Statistics Dr. Robin K. Henson University of North Texas © 2002 University of North Texas Dr. Robin K. Henson © 2002 Next Slide

Variables must be operationalized and measured. : 

Variables must be operationalized and measured. Variables are represented by numbers. Different numbers contain different kinds of information depending on how the variables were measured. University of North Texas Dr. Robin K. Henson © 2002 Next Slide

Levels of Scale : 

Levels of Scale Nominal Ordinal Interval Ratio University of North Texas Dr. Robin K. Henson © 2002 Next Slide

Nominal(AKA: Categorical, Qualitative) : 

Nominal(AKA: Categorical, Qualitative) Each observation belongs to one category and all categories are mutually exclusive. Gender Treatment Group C T2 T1 University of North Texas Dr. Robin K. Henson © 2002 Next Slide

Slide 5: 

University of North Texas Dr. Robin K. Henson © 2002 Q: Which of the following represents a measurement on a categorical level of scale? a. Age in years. b. Scores on a midterm exam. c. Temperature in Fahrenheit. d. Ethnicity of students in this class. e. None of the above are nominal. Go to next slide for answer. Click mouse to continue

Answer : 

Answer a. No, this is probably ratio level of scale (to be discussed later). b. No, this is interval level of scale (to be discussed later). c. No, this is interval level of scale (to be discussed later). d. Yes, ethnicity is generally considered categorical in nature. e. No, d is correct. Click mouse to go to next slide.

Ordinal (AKA: Ranked, Qualitative) : 

Ordinal (AKA: Ranked, Qualitative) All properties of nominal AND the categories are ordered. Class rank Places in horse race University of North Texas Dr. Robin K. Henson © 2002 Next Slide

Interval(AKA: Continuous) : 

Interval(AKA: Continuous) All properties of nominal and ordinal AND the categories have equal intervals between possible observations. Test Scores 80, 81 … 90, 91 GPA 3.1, 3.2, … University of North Texas Dr. Robin K. Henson © 2002 Next Slide

Slide 9: 

University of North Texas Dr. Robin K. Henson © 2002 Q: Assume you are a counselor and that you conduct a study to determine which of two approaches to counseling (i.e., psychodynamic vs. person-centered therapy) is most effective in treating depression (as measured by the Beck Depression Inventory). Which of the following is true regarding level of scale? Counseling approach is ordinal and depression scores are continuous. b. Counseling approach is nominal and depression scores are nominal. c. Counseling approach is continuous and depression scores are ordinal. d. Counseling approach is ordinal and depression scores are nominal. e. None of the above are true. Go to next slide for answer. Click mouse to continue

Answer : 

Answer a. No, see (e). b. No, see (e). c. No, see (e). d. No, see (e). e. Yes, actually counseling approach is nominal (two categories due to type of therapy) and the depression scores are most likely continuous. Click mouse to go to next slide.

I love statistics! 1 2 3 4 5 Strongly Neutral Strongly Disagree Agree : 

I love statistics! 1 2 3 4 5 Strongly Neutral Strongly Disagree Agree Likert Scale What about IQ scores ? University of North Texas Dr. Robin K. Henson © 2002 Next Slide

Ratio(AKA: Nothing) : 

Ratio(AKA: Nothing) All properties of nominal, ordinal, and interval AND the data has a true (meaningful) zero point. Age Kelvin temp. scale = absolute zero 5 years 10 years 20 years University of North Texas Dr. Robin K. Henson © 2002 Next Slide

Level of scale determines what you can do with the numbers. : 

Level of scale determines what you can do with the numbers. Average gender? Average class rank? Only interval and ratio are measured on an “equal interval ruler” and can be submitted to math operations. University of North Texas Dr. Robin K. Henson © 2002 Next Slide

Unit 1: Understanding and Representing DataLesson 3: Levels of Scale : 

Unit 1: Understanding and Representing DataLesson 3: Levels of Scale EDER 5210 – Educational Statistics Dr. Robin K. Henson University of North Texas © 2002 University of North Texas Dr. Robin K. Henson © 2002 End

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